OpenVMS version 7.2
This release of OpenVMS provides new features and enhancements that focus
on the following areas:
This document describes some of the new features and enhancements included
in the next release of OpenVMS. If a feature is specific to one platform,
it is specified in the header.
Galaxy software architecture on OpenVMS Alpha
OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 introduces a model of computing that allows multiple
instances of OpenVMS to execute cooperatively in a single computer. With
Adaptive Partitioned Multiprocessing (APMP), many processors (and other
physical resources) are partitioned in order to run multiple instances
of operating systems. Each instance has assigned CPUs, memory, and I/O.
The instances share a part of memory, and CPUs can be reassigned from one
instance to another while the system runs. This computing environment can
be dynamically adapted to changing application needs and workload demands.
Compaq's first implementation of the APMP model of computing is the
Galaxy Software Architecture on OpenVMS Alpha. An evolution in OpenVMS
functionality, OpenVMS Galaxy leverages proven OpenVMS cluster, symmetric
multiprocessing, memory management, memory channel community management,
and performance features to provide extremely flexible operational computing
For companies looking to improve their ability to manage unpredictable,
variable, or growing IT workloads, OpenVMS Galaxy technology provides a
flexible way to dynamically reconfigure and manage system resources.
By running multiple instances of OpenVMS in a single computer, an OpenVMS
Galaxy computing environment gives you quantum improvements in:
An OpenVMS Galaxy computing environment is ideal for high-availability
applications, such as:
Compatibility---Existing applications run without changes.
Availability---Presents opportunities to upgrade software and expand system
capacity without downtime.
Scalability---Offers scaling alternatives that improve performance of SMP
and cluster environments.
Adaptability---Physical resources can be dynamically reassigned to meet
changing workload demands.
Cost of ownership---Fewer computer systems reduce system management requirements,
floor space, and more.
With OpenVMS Alpha Version Version 7.2, you can create an OpenVMS Galaxy
computing environment that allows you to:
Transaction processing systems
For more information about how to create, manage, and use an OpenVMS Galaxy
computing environment, refer to the OpenVMS Alpha Galaxy Guide.
This book includes:
Run three instances of OpenVMS on an AlphaServer 8400
Run two instances of OpenVMS on an AlphaServer 8200
Run two instances of OpenVMS on an AlphaServer 4100
Reassign CPUs between instances
Perform independent booting and shutdown of instances
Use shared memory for inter-instance communication
Cluster instances within an OpenVMS Galaxy using the shared memory cluster
Cluster instances with non-Galaxy systems
Create applications using OpenVMS Galaxy APIs for resource management,
event notification, locking for synchronization, and shared memory for
Use the Galaxy Configuration Utility to view and control the OpenVMS Galaxy
Run a single-instance OpenVMS Galaxy on any Alpha system for application
OpenVMS Galaxy hardware and configuration requirements
Procedures for creating OpenVMS Galaxy computing envrionments on OpenVMS
Alpha Server 8400, 8200, and 4100 systems
Complete details about how to use all of the OpenVMS Galaxy features and
capabilities available in OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2
OpenVMS and windows integration and interoperability (Alpha)
COM for OpenVMS
COM (Component Object Model) is a technology from Microsoft® that
allows developers to create distributed network objects. DIGITAL and Microsoft
jointly developed the COM specification. First released as NetOLE (Network
Object Linking and Embedding) and then renamed DCOM (Distributed COM),
the COM specification now includes network objects. COM for OpenVMS is
an implementation of the Microsoft code that supports the COM draft standards.
A developer might implement COM applications on OpenVMS in the following
To implement COM on OpenVMS, Compaq has made the following changes to the
OpenVMS operating system:
For existing OpenVMS applications and data, a developer can encapsulate
an OpenVMS application as a COM object. A Windows COM client can then interact
with the existing OpenVMS application and data. This allows business-critical
applications and data to stay on the OpenVMS system while making the OpenVMS
data and code accessible through a Windows application.
For existing COM applications on other operating systems, a developer can
port COM objects to OpenVMS to take advantage of specific OpenVMS features.
This allows you to leave other COM objects associated with the application
unchanged on their current platforms, and lets you port only the objects
you need to your OpenVMS system. You can then revise the ported code to
maximize OpenVMS benefits and at the same time, minimize the change to
the overall application.
For new OpenVMS applications, a developer can create a COM server on OpenVMS.
COM client applications on Windows NT systems, on other OpenVMS systems,
or on other COM-enabled operating systems can access this OpenVMS COM server.
COM for OpenVMS Delivery
Added COM APIs to OpenVMS
Compaq has added a set of Microsoft COM APIs to OpenVMS. These APIs
allow developers to write and debug COM objects on OpenVMS systems. (For
complete details about COM for OpenVMS development, see the OpenVMS
Connectivity Developer Guide included with the COM for OpenVMS developer
Added an OpenVMS Registry
COM applications can add, read, change, and delete the OpenVMS Registry
contents. You can view and edit the contents of the OpenVMS Registry either
from OpenVMS (using the REG$CP utility or the $REGISTRY system
service) or from Windows® NTtm (using RegEdit or
Extended OpenVMS security to enable secure connections between Windows
NT and OpenVMS
These enhancements include support for common user authentication and
authenticated RPC with NTLM security. In addition, Compaq has moved some
DCE RPC functions into the base operating system to provide limited support
for Microsoft RPC calls.
Added application event logging on OpenVMS
Applications write system, security, and application activity information
to the OpenVMS event logs. You can view the contents of the event logs
on OpenVMS either from OpenVMS (using the PATHWORKS Admin utility) or from
Windows NT (using the Windows NT Event Viewer).
COM for OpenVMS will
ship with the OpenVMS operating system. It is licensed as follows:
COM for OpenVMS Security
The run-time version of COM for OpenVMS is licensed as part of OpenVMS
The COM for OpenVMS developer kit has a separately orderable license.
COM for OpenVMS security will be implemented
in two phases. The following sections describe the phases.
Phase 1: COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS (without
In this phase, a COM for OpenVMS process executes
with an OpenVMS security identity only; OpenVMS does not authenticate COM
requests from Windows NT clients or process any Windows NT credentials.
An OpenVMS system manager can set the COM for OpenVMS security identities
of a COM server process in the following ways:
Because COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS does not authenticate remote users,
COM for OpenVMS accepts and processes client requests as if authentication
had taken place. Although less secure than a full NTLM implementation,
COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS minimizes the security risk by using the OpenVMS
accounts to execute servers. COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS enforces security
on a processwide basis; as a result, per-method security is not available.
Execute the process with a DCOM$GUEST identity.
DCOM$GUEST is a nonprivileged account created by COM for OpenVMS
during installation. (This is the default action.)
Assign an OpenVMS account to a specific COM for OpenVMS application.
In this case, the system manager creates a OpenVMS account that has
privileges, rights, and restrictions as defined by the person creating
the account. COM servers that execute from this account are restricted
to the OpenVMS security context of the account.
Because the COM process has no associated NT credentials and no authentication
mechanism exists in COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS, Windows NT systems treat
the outbound requests to Windows NT systems as unauthenticated. Windows
NT systems that run COM server processes for COM for OpenVMS client applications
must allow access to everyone for the specific server applications.
When full NTLM authentication (COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS) is available,
Compaq will add another option: client access. This option allows
the COM for OpenVMS server process to execute in the security context of
the requesting Windows NT client. The COM for OpenVMS server process includes
Windows NT credentials that OpenVMS can use for Registry access and outbound
COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS software requirements
COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS does not use the NTLM security features
(tactical security, SSPI, and authenticated RPC). COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS
does not require or use Advanced Server for OpenVMS (formerly the PATHWORKS
server). Advanced Server for OpenVMS is required if you want to connect
from a Windows NT system and access the OpenVMS Registry. Event logging
is part of PATHWORKS and is not available in COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS.
Phase 2: COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS (with
In this phase, COM for OpenVMS processes OpenVMS
security identities, authenticates COM requests from Windows NT clients,
and processes Windows NT credentials. This is the full implementation of
NTLM (NT LAN Manager) security for COM for OpenVMS.
COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS software requirements
COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS uses the NTLM security features (tactical
security, SSPI, and authenticated RPC). COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS requires
Advanced Server for OpenVMS (formerly the PATHWORKS server). COM Version
1.1 for OpenVMS enables event logging.
Summary of security implementation
The following table summarizes the differences between COM Version 1.0
for OpenVMS and COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS.
Table 1 Summary of differences
between COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS and COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS
||Authenticated on Windows NT; not authenticated on requests to OpenVMS
||Authenticated on Windows NT and OpenVMS
||Servers can run with the client's identity on Windows NT and run with
a pre-specified OpenVMS identity on OpenVMS
||Servers can run with the client's identity on Windows NT and on OpenVMS
||Per-method security is allowed on Windows NT but only process-wide
security is allowed on OpenVMS
||Per-method security is allowed on Windows NT and on OpenVMS
|Outbound COM requests
||Authenticated on Windows NT only
||Authenticated on Windows NT and OpenVMS
||On Windows NT: controlled by NT credentials
On OpenVMS: relies on OpenVMS security controls such as privileges
or rights identifiers
|On Windows NT: controlled by NT credentials
On OpenVMS: controlled either by Windows NT credentials or by
OpenVMS security controls
||Windows NT only
||Windows NT and OpenVMS
Extended File Specifications (Alpha)
OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 implements Extended File Specifications, which
consists of two major components:
This new file structure provides much greater flexibility for OpenVMS Alpha
systems (using Digital Advanced Server for OpenVMS 7.2, formerly known
as PATHWORKS), to store, manage, serve, and access files created by Windows
A new, optional, volume structure, ODS-5, which provides support for file
names that are longer and have a greater range of legal characters than
previous versions of OpenVMS
- Support for deep directories
The deep directories and expanded file naming supported with the new
file structure provide the following benefits:
Advanced Server Version 7.2 for OpenVMS Alpha
Users of Advanced Server for OpenVMS 7.2 have the ability to store longer
file names and use deeper directory structures, which are more compatible
with Windows 95 and Windows NT file names.
Application developers who are porting applications from other environments
that have support for deep directories can use a parallel structure on
Longer file naming capabilities and Unicode support enables OpenVMS Version
7.2 to act as a COM server for Windows NT clients, and ODS-5 provides capabilities
that make the OpenVMS and Windows NT environment more homogeneous for COM
Java applications on OpenVMS will comply with Java object naming standards.
General OpenVMS users can make use of long file names, new character support,
and the ability to have lowercase and mixed-case file names.
The Advanced Server Version 7.2 for OpenVMS provides Windows NT Server
networking features on OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 systems. This product
is based on the PATHWORKS Version 6.0 for OpenVMS (Advanced Server) product,
but is more tightly coupled to the base operating system to take advantage
of new OpenVMS Version 7.2 features. The Advanced Server provides support
for the following OpenVMS Version 7.2 features:
This release will continue to provide the following Windows NT Server networking
features for OpenVMS through a port of the Advanced Server for UNIX OEM
Extended File Specifications Support
OpenVMS Registry support
Use of OpenVMS to store file server parameters
NT connect/management support
Support for underlying features needed by COM for OpenVMS
NT Event Logging
Support for LAN Manager V3.0 technology
Trusted Domain support
Wide Area Domain support - WINS integration over TCP/IP
Full Browser support
NT Management APIs
ADMINISTER Comprehensive command line interface
Password Synchronization between OpenVMS and the Advanced Server
Support for user account lockouts
high availability through premier clustering
OpenVMS Version 7.2 introduces new OpenVMS Cluster features in support
of distributed cluster applications, cluster management, and high performance
Intra-Cluster Communication System Services
The new intra-cluster communication (ICC) system services, available
on Alpha and VAX, form an application programming interface (API) for process-to-process
communications. For large data transfers, the ICC system services are the
highest-performance OpenVMS application communication mechanism, superior
to standard network transports and mailboxes.
The ICC system services enable application program developers to create
distributed applications with connections between different processes on
a single system or between processes on different systems within a single
OpenVMS Cluster system.
The ICC system services do not require a network product. The communication
uses memory or System Communication Services (SCS).
The ICC system services:
Fibre Channel (Alpha)
Allow the creation of both client and server processes
Maintain a simple registry of servers and services
Manage security of the server process namespace and access to server processes
Establish connections between these processes and transmit data between
Provide 64-bit buffer and address support
Fibre Channel is a new 100 MByte/sec. industry standard interconnect
for storage and networking. Fibre Channel offers dramatic increases in
the number of nodes, distance, and aggregate performance over existing
In the current release, Fibre Channel is supported as a multi-host storage
interconnect, using the SCSI protocol. Each Fibre Channel interconnect
can be configured with several hosts and several HSG80 RAID controllers.
Distances of several hundred meters are supported. Multipath failover is
Support for these features is latent in OpenVMS Alpha V7.2, and is expected
to be formally supported in late Q1CY99. Future releases of OpenVMS will
deliver expanded Fibre Channel support, both for storage and as a cluster
SCSI and Fibre Channel Multipath Support (Alpha)
SCSI multipath support means support for failover between multiple paths
that may exist between an OpenVMS system and a SCSI device. This support
is provided for both parallel SCSI and FC. If the current path to a mounted
disk fails, the system will automatically failover to the alternate path.
Multipath support is provided for systems that are configured with multiple
direct connections to the HSZ70, HSZ80, and the HSG80 storage controllers.
Multipath support is also provided for systems that are in a cluster and
have direct path(s) to a disk as well as an MSCP-served path.
Multipath SCSI devices can be directly attached to Alpha systems and
served to Alpha or VAX systems.
SCSI multipath failover for redundant paths to a storage device greatly
improves data availability, and, in some configurations, will improve performance.
Multipath support for failover between direct SCSI paths and MSCP served
paths is latent in OpenVMS Alpha V7.2, and is expected to be formally suppported
in late Q1CY99.
Gigabit Ethernet (Alpha)
A new 1000 MB/sec industry-standard Network Interface Adapter (NIC),
Gigabit Ethernet on Alpha provides the ultimate in high performance for
network applications, while using existing Ethernet technology.
Clusterwide Logical Names
Clusterwide logical names, available on Alpha and VAX, extend the convenience
and ease-of-use features of shareable logical names to OpenVMS Cluster
systems. Existing applications can take advantage of clusterwide logical
names without any changes to the application code. Only a minor modification
to the logical name tables referenced (directly or indirectly) by the application
New logical names created on OpenVMS Version 7.2 are local by default.
Clusterwide is an attribute of a logical name table. In order for a new
logical name to be clusterwide, it must be created in a clusterwide logical
On OpenVMS Version 7.2, two new clusterwide tables are created automatically:
LNM$CLUSTER_TABLE and LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE. LNM$CLUSTER_TABLE is the parent
table for all clusterwide tables. The clusterwide attribute is inherited
by all descendents of LNM$CLUSTER_TABLE and is applied to all names defined
in clusterwide tables.
LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE does not have any entries when shipped. It is provided
for system managers who want to use clusterwide logical names to customize
their environments. LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE has been added to the definition
of LNM$SYSTEM to form a default search list for translating system logical
names. LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE is searched last.
Privileged users and applications can create additional clusterwide
tables and can create names in these tables.
Some of the most important features of clusterwide logical names are:
Ultra SCSI (Alpha)
When a new node running OpenVMS Version 7.2 joins the cluster, it automatically
receives the current set of clusterwide logical names.
When a clusterwide logical name or name table is created or deleted, the
creation or deletion is automatically propagated to every other node in
the cluster running OpenVMS Version 7.2. Consistency is guaranteed on every
Translations are done locally so there is minimal performance degradation
for clusterwide name translations.
Because LNM$CLUSTER_TABLE and LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE exist on all systems
running OpenVMS Version 7.2, the programs and command procedures that use
clusterwide logical names can be developed, tested, and run on nonclustered
Ultra SCSI was invented by DIGITAL and subsequently standardized by
the ANSI SCSI committee. Ultra SCSI incorporates several improvements over
its predecessor, Fast SCSI, including an increase in the maximum transfer
rate on the SCSI bus from 10 MHz to 20 MHz. For a wide Ultra SCSI bus,
this means an increase in maximum bus bandwidth from 20 MB/sec. to 40 MB/sec.
The OpenVMS SCSI device drivers in Version 7.2 support Ultra SCSI operations
on devices that are capable of operating in that mode.
OpenVMS Ultra SCSI support was first introduced in the OpenVMS Alpha
Version 7.1-1H1 hardware release for single host configurations. Multihost
Ultra SCSI configurations were supported soon after that and are supported
in OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2.
Memory Channel Enhancements (Alpha)
MEMORY CHANNEL, introduced in OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1, is a high-performance
cluster interconnect technology for PCI-based Alpha systems. It is suitable
for applications that must move large amounts of data among nodes, such
as high-performance databases.
MEMORY CHANNEL supports node-to-node communication. A second interconnect
is required for network traffic.
When first introduced, MEMORY CHANNEL supported a maximum of 4 nodes
in a 10 foot radial topology.
OpenVMS Version 7.1--1H1 provided the following additional MEMORY CHANNEL
OpenVMS Version 7.2 provides the following new MEMORY CHANNEL features:
Support for a new adapter, the CCMAA--BA
Maximum of 8 nodes in a configuration
Time stamps on all messages
More robust performance in the presence of errors
Lock Manager Performance Enhancements (Alpha)
Support for a new adapter and new hub with improved performance
Support for longer cables for a radial topology up to 100 feet
Copper cables (3 sizes) support up to a 10 meter (32.8 ft) topology
Fiber optics cables (2 sizes) support up to a 30 meter (98.4 ft) topology
The lock manager synchronizes resources in an OpenVMS system. The enhanced
lock manager software improves performance of applications that issue a
large number of lock manager requests. The enhancements also improve application
scaling on multiprocessor systems.
Disk Volume Cluster Factor Reduction
The disk volume cluster factor for ODS2 and ODS5 volumes on OpenVMS
Alpha and VAX V7.2 can now be as low as 1, even on larger volumes. This
is the granularity of the storage that is accessable on a disk, in units
(clusters) of disk blocks.
Prior to OpenVMS V7.2, one could see cluster factors of 18 or higher
on larger disks, which wastes (on average) half the cluster factor for
each file present on the disk.
On average, using this feature will free up nearly half of the original
disk cluster factor setting times the total number of files present on
the target disk. Sites that have numerous files will realize the benefit
more than sites with only a few large files.
Users must be using only OpenVMS V7.2 or later to utilize the larger
storage bitmaps and smaller cluster factors. Large bitmaps are not supported
on earlier OpenVMS releases.
Port Allocation Class Enhancements (Alpha)
Port allocation classes, introduced in OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1, provide
an alternate way to name SCSI devices attached to Alpha systems in an OpenVMS
Cluster. Port allocation classes remove some configuration constraints
for SCSI devices in a multihost configuration.
OpenVMS Version 7.2 provides several improvements to the operation of
port allocation classes. These improvements eliminate some of the restrictions
associated with the first release of port allocation classes.
Netscape FastTrack Server Version 3.01 for OpenVMS Alpha
Netscape FastTrack Server Version 3.01 for OpenVMS Alpha, a general
purpose Web server for creating, building, publishing, and
serving Web pages and applications, is now bundled with the OpenVMS
Alpha Version 7.2 operating system at no additional cost.
FastTrack supersedes Netscape Communications and Commerce Servers for
OpenVMS and includes an upgrade tool that migrates
your configuration from the Communications or Commerce Servers to FastTrack.
FastTrack is designed for users who require
encrypted communications and scalable performance, and combines the
reliability of an Internet standards-based Web engine with the
ability to quickly and easily set up and publish a sophisticated Web
site. FastTrack can be installed and run in a matter of minutes. With
FastTrack's Web-based administration interface, users can manage a
Web site from any desktop in the organization.
Highlights of FastTrack include:
Netscape FastTrack Server for OpenVMS Alpha is included in the OpenVMS
Alpha Version 7.2 release and is licensed under the
Web engine based on the HTTP 1.1 standard.
Comprehensive management of users and groups, configurations, and
Flexible, fine-grained access controls on documents and directories.
Support for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), so
that users and groups can be centrally managed across an
organization or even outside it. LDAP support enables administrators
to easily manage users and groups, control access to
information, change configurations, monitor activity and review
log reports. Moreover, all these tasks can be done from an
administrator's own Web browser no matter where on the network
the administrator resides. And, because LDAP is an
Internet-standard protocol, administrators can connect to Netscape
Directory Server or any LDAP directory outside their
Distributed administration that allows administrative privileges
to be shared by multiple people or a subset of capabilities to be
An advanced platform for building crossware applications through its support
Centralized certificate management.
One-button publishing feature, allowing users to use Netscape Communicator
V4.0, Netscape Navigator Gold, or any other authoring
tool that supports the HTTP-put method, to publish a document to a remote
server with the click of a button. Increasingly,
users are creating documents for a single, remote Web site to which they
do not necessarily have file system access.
Now these users can publish directly to the appropriate Web server without
having to use FTP or copy across NFS-mounted drives.
Support for Internet access control lists (ACLs), which restrict read and/or
write access to the server.
Security features that restrict access to information stored on the server
Supporting SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) V3.0, the widely accepted Internet
security standard that encrypts the information flow between the server
and a Web client
Supporting client authentication to restrict access to documents, directories,
and applications based on specific user name/password
pairs, groups (collection of users), IP addresses, host names, or domain
names client certificates
Supporting 40-bit and 128-bit encryption (128-bit encryption is available
for use in the U.S. and Canada only.)
OpenVMS license, QL-MT1*. No additional license is required. Netscape
FastTrack Version 3.01 for OpenVMS Alpha software is
also available at no cost as a downloadable kit from http://h71000.www7.hp.com
Netscape FastTrack Version 3.01 for OpenVMS Alpha requires OpenVMS V7.1
or later and DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Version 4.2 or later.
Java Development Kit Version 1.1.6 for OpenVMS Alpha
Java applications can be written once and run on any operating system
that implements the Java runtime environment, which consists
primarily of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). OpenVMS Alpha users can
now access Java's functionality via the Java Development Kit
(JDK) Version 1.1.6, which is bundled with the OpenVMS Alpha Version
7.2 operating system. The JDK and Just-In-Time
compiler---which significantly improves the run-time performance of
Java applications---are also available from Compaq's Java home
page as a downloadable kit for OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1 or later systems.
The Java Development Kit (JDK) Version 1.1.6 is a set of building blocks
containing basic development tools and a rich set of class
Java Development Kit Version 1.1.6 for OpenVMS Alpha features include:
Java Virtual Machine
Java Class Libraries
Java Applet Viewer
Java Debugger and other tools
The Java Development Kit Version 1.1.6 for OpenVMS Alpha is licensed under
the OpenVMS license, QL-MT1*. No additional
The Java Virtual Machine from JavaSoft
Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler, which will provide increased run-time performance
over the interpreter-based Virtual Machine
A POSIX threads (pthreads) implementation which will provide increased
performance on multi-processor systems and
increased robust interoperability with standards-conforming facilities
such as DCE
Two command line interface options which allow you to specify command options
using the Sun Microsystems JDK command line switches
or traditional OpenVMS command line qualifiers
Flexible options for representing UNIX directory and file specifications
on an OpenVMS system
license is required.
The Java Development Kit Version 1.1.6 for OpenVMS Alpha requires OpenVMS
Alpha Version 7.1 or later.
Per-Thread Security Profiles (Alpha)
Per-thread security permits each thread of execution within a multithreaded
process to have an individual security profile. In OpenVMS
Version 7.2, the impersonation system services and underlying system
framework have been enhanced to support per-thread security
When kernel threads were implemented in the OpenVMS operating system,
modifications to one thread's security information
(privileges, rights, and identity information) could be inadvertently
passed to another thread if the threads are scheduled on different
processors simultaneously, as kernel threads are designed to do.
Per-thread security ensures that this security information is handled
properly. Each user thread in a process has a fully separate security
profile. When the user thread is scheduled, the security profile for
that thread is automatically switched as well.
The primary consumer of per-thread security is a multithreaded server
with threads that impersonate clients. These threads appear to the
system as the clients in regard to audits, access checks, rights processing,
and so on. This is a benefit to those writing a system level
server application that processes requests on behalf of users. These
applications can be coded using the DECthreads thread model and
the system's built-in impersonation services to have the system automatically
perform the security checking on behalf of the requesting
New Security Persona Services (Alpha)
The ability to support any security model that fits your business is
now part of OpenVMS. Enhancements to the Security Persona
Services give OpenVMS applications the ability to attach Windows NT
or any other non-OpenVMS security credentials to an
OpenVMS security profile.
OpenVMS Management Station V3.0
Version 3.0 of OpenVMS Management Station adds storage management support.
OpenVMS Management Station now makes it easy for you to manage your disk
storage devices across multiple OpenVMS Cluster systems and OpenVMS Nodes.
With Version 3.0 of OpenVMS Management Station you no longer need to
maintain complicated command files to control your storage environment.
You can create, delete, and manage storage from an easy-to-use Windows
interface. OpenVMS Management Station
makes it easy for you to manage a wide range of storage devices across
multiple OpenVMS Cluster systems and OpenVMS nodes. It
provides a persistent database that can automatically determine and
configure your system's storage configuration at system startup.
OpenVMS Management Station is now based on the Microsoft Management
Console (MMC). The Microsoft Management Console
provides a common management framework for various administration programs.
OpenVMS Management Station is implemented as an MMC snap-in and includes
all of the MMC components you need.
Storage Configuration Management - You can create, delete, and manage
a disk volume under one interface. Wizards make it easy to create a volume.
Configuration Control Over Reboots - If you allow it to, OpenVMS
Management Station preserves the disk configuration across reboots. OpenVMS
Management Station can mount and maintain your storage configuration without
intervention. And, OpenVMS Management Station mounts volumes much faster
than is possible with DCL or command procedures, so performance is enhanced.
Monitoring Volumes - OpenVMS Management Station can monitor volumes
and alert you if a volumes free space drops below a certain percentage
or if a hardware error is detected.
Coexistence with Established Environment - You do not have to change
your existing DCL command procedures if you don't want to. You can use
the display capabilities of OpenVMS Management Station without having to
use the automated mount feature. In this way, you can give OpenVMS Management
Station as little or as much control as you are comfortable with.
Multiple Tape Density (Alpha)
Provides OpenVMS support for additional density/compression settings
for tape drives that support multiple density/compression
modes. This additional support allows customers using OpenVMS tape
drives to write data to tapes using the same
density/compression on different tape drives.
OpenVMS BACKUP Utility Performance Improvements
The OpenVMS BACKUP utility has been enhanced to provide faster performance
for disk-to-tape backup of smaller to medium size
files. This was accomplished by completely overlapping writing to tape
with reading from the disk.
application performance and scalability
Buffer Objects for Global Sections (Alpha)
Allow database servers that share a large memory-resident cache to create
buffer objects for global sections that are page file-backed,
disk file-backed, or memory resident.
OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 supports buffer objects for memory mapped
to global sections. Database servers that share a large
memory-resident cache can now create buffer objects for the following
types of global sections:
Page file-backed global sections
Disk file-backed global sections
Memory resident global sections
This means that as of OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2, Fast I/O can be performed
on any global sections.
OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.0 introduced Fast I/O and buffer objects. Buffer
objects enable Fast I/O, which improves performance by
reducing the CPU costs per I/O request. OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1 introduced
memory resident global sections, which allow a
database server to keep larger amounts of "hot" data cached in physical
memory. With faster access to the data in physical memory,
run-time performance increases dramatically.
By using buffer objects for memory mapped to global sections, I/O performance
is dramatically increased for critical database server
Installing Images with Shared Address Data (Alpha)
Using shared address data on OpenVMS Alpha systems improves performance
at the following times:
OpenVMS Debugger Client for Windows
At runtime, shared address data saves physical memory because of increased
memory sharing between processes.
At image activation, shared address data reduces CPU and I/O time because
fixup is performed at installation time.
OpenVMS Debugger Client for Windows is a Native Windows NT/95 Graphical
User Interface (GUI) for the OpenVMS Debugger
(both VAX and Alpha), which allows seamless debugging of OpenVMS applications
from a PC, without using X window emulators.
The debugger's Windows GUI communicates with the OpenVMS debugger, running
on an OpenVMS system, via DCE-RPC.
OpenVMS Debugger Client for Windows also provides a 'collaborative
debugging' capability, where two or more users can
simultaneously view/debug the same application at the same time, each
from their own PC. Finally, OpenVMS Debugger Client for
Windows provides the ability to debug more than one program at a time,
potentially on different host systems, without restarting the
GUI or any of the applications.
RMS Global Buffer Hashing
OpenVMS Version 7.2 replaces the present sequential global buffer lookup
with a hashing scheme that significantly improves the
performance of global buffer counts in a shared file environment. As
system memory size has increased over the years, RMS
performance has been affected by the increased number of global buffers
used for each file. This enhancement ensures optimal RMS
performance even when a file uses the maximum number of global buffers,
which is 32,767.
Kernel Threads Enhancements (Alpha)
OpenVMS V7.2 offers the following new kernel threads enhancements:
Capacity for a larger number of kernel threads per process. The number
of kernel threads that can be created per-process is increased to 256 from
16 in the previous version of OpenVMS. The maximum value for the MULTITHREAD
system parameter is also increased to 256.
Ability to change the base priorities of all kernel threads with a single
call. A new value for the "policy" parameter to the SYS$SETPRI system service
has been added. If JPI$K_ALL_THREADS is specified, the call to SYS$SETPRI
changes the base priorities of all kernel threads in the target process.
The SET PROCESS/PRIORITY DCL command contains a new qualifier, ALL_THREADS,
that provides the same support.
Ability to detect a thread stack overflow. OpenVMS V7.2 introduces yellow
stack zones and are available to applications using DECthreads. Yellow
stack zones are a mechanism by which a stack overflow can be signaled back
to an application. The application can then choose to either provide a
stack overflow handler or do nothing. If an application does nothing, this
mechanism helps pinpoint the failure for the application developer. Instead
of an access violation being signaled, a stack overflow error is signaled.
DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, Version 5.0
DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, Version 5.0 is Compaq's industry-standard
implementation of the TCP/IP networking
protocol on the OpenVMS platform (Alpha and VAX).
DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS is a networking software product
that provides interoperability and resource sharing among
systems running OpenVMS, UNIX, Windows NT, and other operating systems
that support TCP/IP. Version 5.0 provides a
comprehensive suite of functions and applications that support industry-standard
protocols for heterogeneous network communications
The new stack in this version is based on the Compaq DIGITAL UNIX TCP/IP
stack, proven in the industry to be reliable, of high
quality, and competitive in performance. V5.0 also delivers transparent
backward compatibility with earlier versions of DIGITAL
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS.
DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, Version 5.0 still contains important
features found in earlier versions. These include IP
multicasting, dynamic load balancing, host-based routing, network file
access and sharing, remote terminal access, remote command
execution, network printing, mail, application development, distributed
name services, network management tools, support for
point-to-point serial access, dynamic allocation of IP addresses, and
Here is a list of the new features:
CIDR---Classless Interdomain Routing is a mechanism introduced by the Internet
Engineering Task Force (IETF) to help prolong the life of the existing
IP address space. CIDR allows networks to be built with variable length
subnetworks which results in more efficient use of available IP address
PathMTU Discovery---PathMTU Discovery allows an IP host to determine the
most efficient packet size for use on a particular path between the source
to the destination host. This allows for the "lowest common denominator"
packet size, which facilitates selective improvement of communications
efficiency with other hosts.
DHCP---Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is based on the JOIN software
product from Competitive Automation. DHCP provides a centralized approach
to the configuration and maintenance of IP address space. It allows the
system manager to provide dynamic allocation of IP addresses from an OpenVMS
GateD---This release provides a new alternative to dynamic routing, based
on GateD Release 3.5 from the GateDaemon Project at Cornell University.
The gateway routing (GATED) server and suite of interior and exterior routing
protocols offer advanced routing options.
Industry-Standard Management Commands---To assist with the management of
OpenVMS systems in a mixed UNIX and OpenVMS environment, DIGITAL TCP/IP
Services for OpenVMS, Version 5.0 provides UNIX-style management utilities
to allow efficient configuration and management. For convenience of system
managers who prefer the traditional DCL-style commands supported in earlier
versions of the product, the older command set has been maintained.
xNTP---This release provides a new implementation of the Network Time Protocol
(NTP) based on xNTP V3. This implementation provides several utilities
and authentication support, and it retains compatibility with V1 and V2
DNS/BIND---This release provides a new BIND implementation based on ISC
BIND 8.1.2. Features include dynamic updates, change notification, new
configuration, flexible categorized logging system, IP address-based access
control for queries, more efficient zone transfers, improved performance
for servers with thousands of zones, and updates that may be specified
on a zone-by-zone basis.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2) support---Provides support
for network management with the Extensible SNMP software that allows customer-written
programs to respond to requests and commands from SNMP based network management
OpenVMS V7.2 support---OpenVMS V7.2 introduces support for better integration
with the Windows environment. DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, Version
5.0 supports copying of files with long file names via FTP from one OpenVMS
system to another, or from OpenVMS to other systems with extended file
year 2000 readiness
OpenVMS Version 7.2 is ready for the year 2000. However, you need not
wait to install Version 7.2 to be Year 2000 ready. Year
2000 enhancement kits are available now through the normal service
channels and on the Web for OpenVMS Version 7.1, Version
6.2, and Version 5.5-2. The OpenVMS Version 6.2 and Version 5.5-2 Year
2000 Enhancement Kits are available on the Web to
service customers only. An orderable OpenVMS Year 2000 Enhancement
Kit, which includes three media types and kits for
OpenVMS Alpha and VAX Version 7.1 and Version 6.2, and OpenVMS VAX
5.5-2 is also available. Use the following part number
when ordering: QA-MT1AQ-HW.
The Year 2000 enhancement kits remove a few, minor limitations in some
older, rarely used components. For more information, check
out the OpenVMS Year 2000 home page:
OpenVMS Version 7.2 Online Documentation
For Version 7.2, the OpenVMS Alpha and VAX Documentation CD-ROM supports
a dual OpenVMS and Windows-based PC
format. This means that you can mount and read the CD-ROM on both OpenVMS
VAX and Alpha systems and a Windows 95 or
Windows NT system.
APB Firmware Rev Check (Alpha)
Provides an enhanced firmware checking function for OpenVMS Alpha systems
during a boot operation.
When you boot the OpenVMS Alpha operating system CD-ROM, the system
automatically checks the version of console firmware
(which includes PALcode) running on your computer and provides more
explicit information about how and when to upgrade that
firmware. (Previously, only the PALcode version was checked and the
informational messages were less detailed.)
Note that after you install this version of the OpenVMS Alpha operating
system on your system disk, the system will perform this
console firmware checking operation each time you boot.
DVD Support (Alpha)
OpenVMS Alpha V7.2 will support systems with a DVD-ROM drive (in replacement
of a CD-ROM drive) to read a traditional
CD-ROM media disk. This is referred to as DVD "compatiblity mode" support.
ATM Kit B (Alpha)
The ATM Kit B provides an improved interface into the ATM subsystem
and allows for the dynamic creation and deletion of LAN
emulation clients (LECs) and Classical IP (CLIP) clients.