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OpenVMS version 7.2

This release of OpenVMS provides new features and enhancements that focus on the following areas:

This document describes some of the new features and enhancements included in the next release of OpenVMS. If a feature is specific to one platform, it is specified in the header.

Galaxy software architecture on OpenVMS Alpha

OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 introduces a model of computing that allows multiple instances of OpenVMS to execute cooperatively in a single computer. With Adaptive Partitioned Multiprocessing (APMP), many processors (and other physical resources) are partitioned in order to run multiple instances of operating systems. Each instance has assigned CPUs, memory, and I/O. The instances share a part of memory, and CPUs can be reassigned from one instance to another while the system runs. This computing environment can be dynamically adapted to changing application needs and workload demands.

Compaq's first implementation of the APMP model of computing is the Galaxy Software Architecture on OpenVMS Alpha. An evolution in OpenVMS functionality, OpenVMS Galaxy leverages proven OpenVMS cluster, symmetric multiprocessing, memory management, memory channel community management, and performance features to provide extremely flexible operational computing capabilities.

For companies looking to improve their ability to manage unpredictable, variable, or growing IT workloads, OpenVMS Galaxy technology provides a flexible way to dynamically reconfigure and manage system resources.

By running multiple instances of OpenVMS in a single computer, an OpenVMS Galaxy computing environment gives you quantum improvements in:

  • Compatibility---Existing applications run without changes.
  • Availability---Presents opportunities to upgrade software and expand system capacity without downtime.
  • Scalability---Offers scaling alternatives that improve performance of SMP and cluster environments.
  • Adaptability---Physical resources can be dynamically reassigned to meet changing workload demands.
  • Cost of ownership---Fewer computer systems reduce system management requirements, floor space, and more.
An OpenVMS Galaxy computing environment is ideal for high-availability applications, such as:
  • Database servers
  • Transaction processing systems
  • Data Warehousing
  • Data Mining
  • Internet servers
With OpenVMS Alpha Version Version 7.2, you can create an OpenVMS Galaxy computing environment that allows you to:
  • Run three instances of OpenVMS on an AlphaServer 8400
  • Run two instances of OpenVMS on an AlphaServer 8200
  • Run two instances of OpenVMS on an AlphaServer 4100
  • Reassign CPUs between instances
  • Perform independent booting and shutdown of instances
  • Use shared memory for inter-instance communication
  • Cluster instances within an OpenVMS Galaxy using the shared memory cluster interconnect
  • Cluster instances with non-Galaxy systems
  • Create applications using OpenVMS Galaxy APIs for resource management, event notification, locking for synchronization, and shared memory for global sections
  • Use the Galaxy Configuration Utility to view and control the OpenVMS Galaxy environment
  • Run a single-instance OpenVMS Galaxy on any Alpha system for application development
For more information about how to create, manage, and use an OpenVMS Galaxy computing environment, refer to the OpenVMS Alpha Galaxy Guide. This book includes:
  • OpenVMS Galaxy hardware and configuration requirements
  • Procedures for creating OpenVMS Galaxy computing envrionments on OpenVMS Alpha Server 8400, 8200, and 4100 systems
  • Complete details about how to use all of the OpenVMS Galaxy features and capabilities available in OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2


OpenVMS and windows integration and interoperability (Alpha)

COM for OpenVMS

COM (Component Object Model) is a technology from Microsoft® that allows developers to create distributed network objects. DIGITAL and Microsoft jointly developed the COM specification. First released as NetOLE (Network Object Linking and Embedding) and then renamed DCOM (Distributed COM), the COM specification now includes network objects. COM for OpenVMS is an implementation of the Microsoft code that supports the COM draft standards.

A developer might implement COM applications on OpenVMS in the following ways: 

  • For existing OpenVMS applications and data, a developer can encapsulate an OpenVMS application as a COM object. A Windows COM client can then interact with the existing OpenVMS application and data. This allows business-critical applications and data to stay on the OpenVMS system while making the OpenVMS data and code accessible through a Windows application.
  • For existing COM applications on other operating systems, a developer can port COM objects to OpenVMS to take advantage of specific OpenVMS features. This allows you to leave other COM objects associated with the application unchanged on their current platforms, and lets you port only the objects you need to your OpenVMS system. You can then revise the ported code to maximize OpenVMS benefits and at the same time, minimize the change to the overall application.
  • For new OpenVMS applications, a developer can create a COM server on OpenVMS. COM client applications on Windows NT systems, on other OpenVMS systems, or on other COM-enabled operating systems can access this OpenVMS COM server.
To implement COM on OpenVMS, Compaq has made the following changes to the OpenVMS operating system:
  • Added COM APIs to OpenVMS 

  • Compaq has added a set of Microsoft COM APIs to OpenVMS. These APIs allow developers to write and debug COM objects on OpenVMS systems. (For complete details about COM for OpenVMS development, see the OpenVMS Connectivity Developer Guide included with the COM for OpenVMS developer kit.)
  • Added an OpenVMS Registry 

  • COM applications can add, read, change, and delete the OpenVMS Registry contents. You can view and edit the contents of the OpenVMS Registry either from OpenVMS (using the REG$CP utility or the $REGISTRY system service) or from Windows® NTtm (using RegEdit or RegEdt32).
  • Extended OpenVMS security to enable secure connections between Windows NT and OpenVMS 

  • These enhancements include support for common user authentication and authenticated RPC with NTLM security. In addition, Compaq has moved some DCE RPC functions into the base operating system to provide limited support for Microsoft RPC calls.
  • Added application event logging on OpenVMS 

  • Applications write system, security, and application activity information to the OpenVMS event logs. You can view the contents of the event logs on OpenVMS either from OpenVMS (using the PATHWORKS Admin utility) or from Windows NT (using the Windows NT Event Viewer).
COM for OpenVMS Delivery

COM for OpenVMS will ship with the OpenVMS operating system. It is licensed as follows:

  • The run-time version of COM for OpenVMS is licensed as part of OpenVMS Version 7.2.
  • The COM for OpenVMS developer kit has a separately orderable license.
COM for OpenVMS Security

COM for OpenVMS security will be implemented in two phases. The following sections describe the phases.

Phase 1: COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS (without authentication)

In this phase, a COM for OpenVMS process executes with an OpenVMS security identity only; OpenVMS does not authenticate COM requests from Windows NT clients or process any Windows NT credentials.

An OpenVMS system manager can set the COM for OpenVMS security identities of a COM server process in the following ways:

  • Execute the process with a DCOM$GUEST identity.

  • DCOM$GUEST is a nonprivileged account created by COM for OpenVMS during installation. (This is the default action.)
  • Assign an OpenVMS account to a specific COM for OpenVMS application.

  • In this case, the system manager creates a OpenVMS account that has privileges, rights, and restrictions as defined by the person creating the account. COM servers that execute from this account are restricted to the OpenVMS security context of the account.
Because COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS does not authenticate remote users, COM for OpenVMS accepts and processes client requests as if authentication had taken place. Although less secure than a full NTLM implementation, COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS minimizes the security risk by using the OpenVMS accounts to execute servers. COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS enforces security on a processwide basis; as a result, per-method security is not available.

Because the COM process has no associated NT credentials and no authentication mechanism exists in COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS, Windows NT systems treat the outbound requests to Windows NT systems as unauthenticated. Windows NT systems that run COM server processes for COM for OpenVMS client applications must allow access to everyone for the specific server applications.

When full NTLM authentication (COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS) is available, Compaq will add another option: client access. This option allows the COM for OpenVMS server process to execute in the security context of the requesting Windows NT client. The COM for OpenVMS server process includes Windows NT credentials that OpenVMS can use for Registry access and outbound COM requests.

COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS software requirements

COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS does not use the NTLM security features (tactical security, SSPI, and authenticated RPC). COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS does not require or use Advanced Server for OpenVMS (formerly the PATHWORKS server). Advanced Server for OpenVMS is required if you want to connect from a Windows NT system and access the OpenVMS Registry. Event logging is part of PATHWORKS and is not available in COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS.

Phase 2: COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS (with NTLM authentication)

In this phase, COM for OpenVMS processes OpenVMS security identities, authenticates COM requests from Windows NT clients, and processes Windows NT credentials. This is the full implementation of NTLM (NT LAN Manager) security for COM for OpenVMS.

COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS software requirements

COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS uses the NTLM security features (tactical security, SSPI, and authenticated RPC). COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS requires Advanced Server for OpenVMS (formerly the PATHWORKS server). COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS enables event logging.

Summary of security implementation differences

The following table summarizes the differences between COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS and COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS. 

Table 1 Summary of differences between COM Version 1.0 for OpenVMS and COM Version 1.1 for OpenVMS
Area  Version 1.0  Version 1.1 
Client requests  Authenticated on Windows NT; not authenticated on requests to OpenVMS  Authenticated on Windows NT and OpenVMS 
Security  Servers can run with the client's identity on Windows NT and run with a pre-specified OpenVMS identity on OpenVMS  Servers can run with the client's identity on Windows NT and on OpenVMS 
Security  Per-method security is allowed on Windows NT but only process-wide security is allowed on OpenVMS  Per-method security is allowed on Windows NT and on OpenVMS 
Outbound COM requests  Authenticated on Windows NT only  Authenticated on Windows NT and OpenVMS 
Registry access  On Windows NT: controlled by NT credentials 

On OpenVMS: relies on OpenVMS security controls such as privileges or rights identifiers 

On Windows NT: controlled by NT credentials 

On OpenVMS: controlled either by Windows NT credentials or by OpenVMS security controls 

Event logging  Windows NT only  Windows NT and OpenVMS 


Extended File Specifications (Alpha)

OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 implements Extended File Specifications, which consists of two major components:

  • A new, optional, volume structure, ODS-5, which provides support for file names that are longer and have a greater range of legal characters than previous versions of OpenVMS
  • Support for deep directories
This new file structure provides much greater flexibility for OpenVMS Alpha systems (using Digital Advanced Server for OpenVMS 7.2, formerly known as PATHWORKS), to store, manage, serve, and access files created by Windows applications.

The deep directories and expanded file naming supported with the new file structure provide the following benefits:

  • Users of Advanced Server for OpenVMS 7.2 have the ability to store longer file names and use deeper directory structures, which are more compatible with Windows 95 and Windows NT file names.
  • Application developers who are porting applications from other environments that have support for deep directories can use a parallel structure on OpenVMS.
  • Longer file naming capabilities and Unicode support enables OpenVMS Version 7.2 to act as a COM server for Windows NT clients, and ODS-5 provides capabilities that make the OpenVMS and Windows NT environment more homogeneous for COM developers.
  • Java applications on OpenVMS will comply with Java object naming standards.
  • General OpenVMS users can make use of long file names, new character support, and the ability to have lowercase and mixed-case file names.
Advanced Server Version 7.2 for OpenVMS Alpha

The Advanced Server Version 7.2 for OpenVMS provides Windows NT Server networking features on OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 systems. This product is based on the PATHWORKS Version 6.0 for OpenVMS (Advanced Server) product, but is more tightly coupled to the base operating system to take advantage of new OpenVMS Version 7.2 features. The Advanced Server provides support for the following OpenVMS Version 7.2 features:

  • Extended File Specifications Support
  • OpenVMS Registry support
    • Use of OpenVMS to store file server parameters
    • NT connect/management support
  • Support for underlying features needed by COM for OpenVMS
    • External Authentication
    • NT Event Logging
This release will continue to provide the following Windows NT Server networking features for OpenVMS through a port of the Advanced Server for UNIX OEM product:
  • Support for LAN Manager V3.0 technology
  • Trusted Domain support
  • Wide Area Domain support - WINS integration over TCP/IP
  • Full Browser support
  • NT Management APIs
  • ADMINISTER Comprehensive command line interface
  • Password Synchronization between OpenVMS and the Advanced Server
  • Support for user account lockouts


high availability through premier clustering

OpenVMS Version 7.2 introduces new OpenVMS Cluster features in support of distributed cluster applications, cluster management, and high performance interconnects.

Intra-Cluster Communication System Services

The new intra-cluster communication (ICC) system services, available on Alpha and VAX, form an application programming interface (API) for process-to-process communications. For large data transfers, the ICC system services are the highest-performance OpenVMS application communication mechanism, superior to standard network transports and mailboxes.

The ICC system services enable application program developers to create distributed applications with connections between different processes on a single system or between processes on different systems within a single OpenVMS Cluster system.

The ICC system services do not require a network product. The communication uses memory or System Communication Services (SCS).

The ICC system services:

  • Allow the creation of both client and server processes
  • Maintain a simple registry of servers and services
  • Manage security of the server process namespace and access to server processes
  • Establish connections between these processes and transmit data between these processes
  • Provide 64-bit buffer and address support
Fibre Channel (Alpha)

Fibre Channel is a new 100 MByte/sec. industry standard interconnect for storage and networking. Fibre Channel offers dramatic increases in the number of nodes, distance, and aggregate performance over existing interconnect technologies.

In the current release, Fibre Channel is supported as a multi-host storage interconnect, using the SCSI protocol. Each Fibre Channel interconnect can be configured with several hosts and several HSG80 RAID controllers. Distances of several hundred meters are supported. Multipath failover is also supported.

Support for these features is latent in OpenVMS Alpha V7.2, and is expected to be formally supported in late Q1CY99. Future releases of OpenVMS will deliver expanded Fibre Channel support, both for storage and as a cluster interconnect.

SCSI and Fibre Channel Multipath Support (Alpha)

SCSI multipath support means support for failover between multiple paths that may exist between an OpenVMS system and a SCSI device. This support is provided for both parallel SCSI and FC. If the current path to a mounted disk fails, the system will automatically failover to the alternate path.

Multipath support is provided for systems that are configured with multiple direct connections to the HSZ70, HSZ80, and the HSG80 storage controllers. Multipath support is also provided for systems that are in a cluster and have direct path(s) to a disk as well as an MSCP-served path.

Multipath SCSI devices can be directly attached to Alpha systems and served to Alpha or VAX systems.

SCSI multipath failover for redundant paths to a storage device greatly improves data availability, and, in some configurations, will improve performance.

Multipath support for failover between direct SCSI paths and MSCP served paths is latent in OpenVMS Alpha V7.2, and is expected to be formally suppported in late Q1CY99.

Gigabit Ethernet (Alpha)

A new 1000 MB/sec industry-standard Network Interface Adapter (NIC), Gigabit Ethernet on Alpha provides the ultimate in high performance for network applications, while using existing Ethernet technology.

Clusterwide Logical Names

Clusterwide logical names, available on Alpha and VAX, extend the convenience and ease-of-use features of shareable logical names to OpenVMS Cluster systems. Existing applications can take advantage of clusterwide logical names without any changes to the application code. Only a minor modification to the logical name tables referenced (directly or indirectly) by the application is required.

New logical names created on OpenVMS Version 7.2 are local by default. Clusterwide is an attribute of a logical name table. In order for a new logical name to be clusterwide, it must be created in a clusterwide logical name table.

On OpenVMS Version 7.2, two new clusterwide tables are created automatically: LNM$CLUSTER_TABLE and LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE. LNM$CLUSTER_TABLE is the parent table for all clusterwide tables. The clusterwide attribute is inherited by all descendents of LNM$CLUSTER_TABLE and is applied to all names defined in clusterwide tables.

LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE does not have any entries when shipped. It is provided for system managers who want to use clusterwide logical names to customize their environments. LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE has been added to the definition of LNM$SYSTEM to form a default search list for translating system logical names. LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE is searched last.

Privileged users and applications can create additional clusterwide tables and can create names in these tables.

Some of the most important features of clusterwide logical names are:

  • When a new node running OpenVMS Version 7.2 joins the cluster, it automatically receives the current set of clusterwide logical names.
  • When a clusterwide logical name or name table is created or deleted, the creation or deletion is automatically propagated to every other node in the cluster running OpenVMS Version 7.2. Consistency is guaranteed on every node.
  • Translations are done locally so there is minimal performance degradation for clusterwide name translations.
  • Because LNM$CLUSTER_TABLE and LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE exist on all systems running OpenVMS Version 7.2, the programs and command procedures that use clusterwide logical names can be developed, tested, and run on nonclustered systems.
Ultra SCSI (Alpha)

Ultra SCSI was invented by DIGITAL and subsequently standardized by the ANSI SCSI committee. Ultra SCSI incorporates several improvements over its predecessor, Fast SCSI, including an increase in the maximum transfer rate on the SCSI bus from 10 MHz to 20 MHz. For a wide Ultra SCSI bus, this means an increase in maximum bus bandwidth from 20 MB/sec. to 40 MB/sec.

The OpenVMS SCSI device drivers in Version 7.2 support Ultra SCSI operations on devices that are capable of operating in that mode.

OpenVMS Ultra SCSI support was first introduced in the OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1-1H1 hardware release for single host configurations. Multihost Ultra SCSI configurations were supported soon after that and are supported in OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2.

Memory Channel Enhancements (Alpha)

MEMORY CHANNEL, introduced in OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1, is a high-performance cluster interconnect technology for PCI-based Alpha systems. It is suitable for applications that must move large amounts of data among nodes, such as high-performance databases.

MEMORY CHANNEL supports node-to-node communication. A second interconnect is required for network traffic.

When first introduced, MEMORY CHANNEL supported a maximum of 4 nodes in a 10 foot radial topology.

OpenVMS Version 7.1--1H1 provided the following additional MEMORY CHANNEL support:

  • Support for a new adapter, the CCMAA--BA
  • Maximum of 8 nodes in a configuration
  • Time stamps on all messages
  • More robust performance in the presence of errors
OpenVMS Version 7.2 provides the following new MEMORY CHANNEL features:
  • Support for a new adapter and new hub with improved performance
  • Support for longer cables for a radial topology up to 100 feet
    • Copper cables (3 sizes) support up to a 10 meter (32.8 ft) topology
    • Fiber optics cables (2 sizes) support up to a 30 meter (98.4 ft) topology
Lock Manager Performance Enhancements (Alpha)

The lock manager synchronizes resources in an OpenVMS system. The enhanced lock manager software improves performance of applications that issue a large number of lock manager requests. The enhancements also improve application scaling on multiprocessor systems.

Disk Volume Cluster Factor Reduction

The disk volume cluster factor for ODS2 and ODS5 volumes on OpenVMS Alpha and VAX V7.2 can now be as low as 1, even on larger volumes. This is the granularity of the storage that is accessable on a disk, in units (clusters) of disk blocks.

Prior to OpenVMS V7.2, one could see cluster factors of 18 or higher on larger disks, which wastes (on average) half the cluster factor for each file present on the disk.

On average, using this feature will free up nearly half of the original disk cluster factor setting times the total number of files present on the target disk. Sites that have numerous files will realize the benefit more than sites with only a few large files.

Users must be using only OpenVMS V7.2 or later to utilize the larger storage bitmaps and smaller cluster factors. Large bitmaps are not supported on earlier OpenVMS releases.

Port Allocation Class Enhancements (Alpha)

Port allocation classes, introduced in OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1, provide an alternate way to name SCSI devices attached to Alpha systems in an OpenVMS Cluster. Port allocation classes remove some configuration constraints for SCSI devices in a multihost configuration.

OpenVMS Version 7.2 provides several improvements to the operation of port allocation classes. These improvements eliminate some of the restrictions associated with the first release of port allocation classes. 


internet technologies

Netscape FastTrack Server Version 3.01 for OpenVMS Alpha

Netscape FastTrack Server Version 3.01 for OpenVMS Alpha, a general purpose Web server for creating, building, publishing, and
serving Web pages and applications, is now bundled with the OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 operating system at no additional cost.
FastTrack supersedes Netscape Communications and Commerce Servers for OpenVMS and includes an upgrade tool that migrates
your configuration from the Communications or Commerce Servers to FastTrack. FastTrack is designed for users who require
encrypted communications and scalable performance, and combines the reliability of an Internet standards-based Web engine with the
ability to quickly and easily set up and publish a sophisticated Web site. FastTrack can be installed and run in a matter of minutes. With
FastTrack's Web-based administration interface, users can manage a Web site from any desktop in the organization.

Highlights of FastTrack include:

  •  Web engine based on the HTTP 1.1 standard.
  •  Comprehensive management of users and groups, configurations, and access control.
  •  Client authentication.
  •  Flexible, fine-grained access controls on documents and directories.
  •  Support for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), so that users and groups can be centrally managed across an

  •  organization or even outside it. LDAP support enables administrators to easily manage users and groups, control access to
     information, change configurations, monitor activity and review log reports. Moreover, all these tasks can be done from an
     administrator's own Web browser no matter where on the network the administrator resides. And, because LDAP is an
     Internet-standard protocol, administrators can connect to Netscape Directory Server or any LDAP directory outside their
  •  Distributed administration that allows administrative privileges to be shared by multiple people or a subset of capabilities to be   delegated.
  • An advanced platform for building crossware applications through its support of the latest versions of Java, JavaScript, and      LiveConnect.
  • Centralized certificate management.
  • One-button publishing feature, allowing users to use Netscape Communicator V4.0, Netscape Navigator Gold, or any other     authoring tool that supports the HTTP-put method, to publish a document to a remote server with the click of a button.     Increasingly, users are creating documents for a single, remote Web site to which they do not necessarily have file system      access.  Now these users can publish directly to the appropriate Web server without having to use FTP or copy across NFS-mounted drives.
  • Support for Internet access control lists (ACLs), which restrict read and/or write access to the server.
  • Security features that restrict access to information stored on the server by:
  • Supporting SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) V3.0, the widely accepted Internet security standard that encrypts the information flow between the server and a Web client
  • Supporting client authentication to restrict access to documents, directories, and applications based on specific user    name/password pairs, groups (collection of users), IP addresses, host names, or domain names client certificates
  • Supporting 40-bit and 128-bit encryption (128-bit encryption is available for use in the U.S. and Canada only.)
Netscape FastTrack Server for OpenVMS Alpha is included in the OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 release and is licensed under the
OpenVMS license, QL-MT1*. No additional license is required. Netscape FastTrack Version 3.01 for OpenVMS Alpha software is
also available at no cost as a downloadable kit from http://h71000.www7.hp.com <http://h71000.www7.hp.com> .

Netscape FastTrack Version 3.01 for OpenVMS Alpha requires OpenVMS V7.1 or later and DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for
OpenVMS Version 4.2 or later.

Java Development Kit Version 1.1.6 for OpenVMS Alpha

Java applications can be written once and run on any operating system that implements the Java runtime environment, which consists
primarily of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). OpenVMS Alpha users can now access Java's functionality via the Java Development Kit
(JDK) Version 1.1.6, which is bundled with the OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 operating system. The JDK and Just-In-Time
compiler---which significantly improves the run-time performance of Java applications---are also available from Compaq's Java home
page as a downloadable kit for OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1 or later systems.

The Java Development Kit (JDK) Version 1.1.6 is a set of building blocks containing basic development tools and a rich set of class
libraries include:

  • Java Compiler
  • Java Virtual Machine
  • Java Class Libraries
  • Java Applet Viewer
  • Java Debugger and other tools
Java Development Kit Version 1.1.6 for OpenVMS Alpha features include:
  • The Java Virtual Machine from JavaSoft
  • Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler, which will provide increased run-time performance over the interpreter-based Virtual Machine
  • A POSIX threads (pthreads) implementation which will provide increased performance on multi-processor systems and      increased robust interoperability with standards-conforming facilities such as DCE
  • Two command line interface options which allow you to specify command options using the Sun Microsystems JDK command     line switches or traditional OpenVMS command line qualifiers
  • Flexible options for representing UNIX directory and file specifications on an OpenVMS system
The Java Development Kit Version 1.1.6 for OpenVMS Alpha is licensed under the OpenVMS license, QL-MT1*. No additional
license is required.

The Java Development Kit Version 1.1.6 for OpenVMS Alpha requires OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1 or later.


security enhancements

Per-Thread Security Profiles (Alpha)

Per-thread security permits each thread of execution within a multithreaded process to have an individual security profile. In OpenVMS
Version 7.2, the impersonation system services and underlying system framework have been enhanced to support per-thread security

When kernel threads were implemented in the OpenVMS operating system, modifications to one thread's security information
(privileges, rights, and identity information) could be inadvertently passed to another thread if the threads are scheduled on different
processors simultaneously, as kernel threads are designed to do.

Per-thread security ensures that this security information is handled properly. Each user thread in a process has a fully separate security
profile. When the user thread is scheduled, the security profile for that thread is automatically switched as well.

The primary consumer of per-thread security is a multithreaded server with threads that impersonate clients. These threads appear to the
system as the clients in regard to audits, access checks, rights processing, and so on. This is a benefit to those writing a system level
server application that processes requests on behalf of users. These applications can be coded using the DECthreads thread model and
the system's built-in impersonation services to have the system automatically perform the security checking on behalf of the requesting

New Security Persona Services (Alpha)

The ability to support any security model that fits your business is now part of OpenVMS. Enhancements to the Security Persona
Services give OpenVMS applications the ability to attach Windows NT or any other non-OpenVMS security credentials to an
OpenVMS security profile.


system management

OpenVMS Management Station V3.0

Version 3.0 of OpenVMS Management Station adds storage management support. OpenVMS Management Station now makes it easy for you to manage your disk storage devices across multiple OpenVMS Cluster systems and OpenVMS Nodes.

With Version 3.0 of OpenVMS Management Station you no longer need to maintain complicated command files to control your storage environment. You can create, delete, and manage storage from an easy-to-use Windows interface. OpenVMS Management Station
makes it easy for you to manage a wide range of storage devices across multiple OpenVMS Cluster systems and OpenVMS nodes. It
provides a persistent database that can automatically determine and configure your system's storage configuration at system startup.

OpenVMS Management Station is now based on the Microsoft Management Console (MMC). The Microsoft Management Console
provides a common management framework for various administration programs. OpenVMS Management Station is implemented as an MMC snap-in and includes all of the MMC components you need.

Features include:

  • Storage Configuration Management - You can create, delete, and manage a disk volume under one interface. Wizards make it easy to create a volume.

  • Configuration Control Over Reboots - If you allow it to, OpenVMS Management Station preserves the disk configuration across reboots. OpenVMS Management Station can mount and maintain your storage configuration without intervention. And, OpenVMS Management Station mounts volumes much faster than is possible with DCL or command procedures, so performance is enhanced.
  • Monitoring Volumes - OpenVMS Management Station can monitor volumes and alert you if a volumes free space drops below a certain percentage or if a hardware error is detected.
  • Coexistence with Established Environment - You do not have to change your existing DCL command procedures if you don't want to. You can use the display capabilities of OpenVMS Management Station without having to use the automated mount feature. In this way, you can give OpenVMS Management Station as little or as much control as you are comfortable with.

Multiple Tape Density (Alpha)

Provides OpenVMS support for additional density/compression settings for tape drives that support multiple density/compression
modes. This additional support allows customers using OpenVMS tape drives to write data to tapes using the same
density/compression on different tape drives.

OpenVMS BACKUP Utility Performance Improvements

The OpenVMS BACKUP utility has been enhanced to provide faster performance for disk-to-tape backup of smaller to medium size
files. This was accomplished by completely overlapping writing to tape with reading from the disk.


application performance and scalability

Buffer Objects for Global Sections (Alpha)

Allow database servers that share a large memory-resident cache to create buffer objects for global sections that are page file-backed,
disk file-backed, or memory resident.

OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2 supports buffer objects for memory mapped to global sections. Database servers that share a large
memory-resident cache can now create buffer objects for the following types of global sections:

     Page file-backed global sections
     Disk file-backed global sections
     Memory resident global sections

This means that as of OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2, Fast I/O can be performed on any global sections.

OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.0 introduced Fast I/O and buffer objects. Buffer objects enable Fast I/O, which improves performance by
reducing the CPU costs per I/O request. OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1 introduced memory resident global sections, which allow a
database server to keep larger amounts of "hot" data cached in physical memory. With faster access to the data in physical memory,
run-time performance increases dramatically.

By using buffer objects for memory mapped to global sections, I/O performance is dramatically increased for critical database server
I/O operations.

Installing Images with Shared Address Data (Alpha)

Using shared address data on OpenVMS Alpha systems improves performance at the following times:

  • At runtime, shared address data saves physical memory because of increased memory sharing between processes.
  • At image activation, shared address data reduces CPU and I/O time because fixup is performed at installation time.
OpenVMS Debugger Client for Windows

OpenVMS Debugger Client for Windows is a Native Windows NT/95 Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the OpenVMS Debugger
(both VAX and Alpha), which allows seamless debugging of OpenVMS applications from a PC, without using X window emulators.

The debugger's Windows GUI communicates with the OpenVMS debugger, running on an OpenVMS system, via DCE-RPC.
OpenVMS Debugger Client for Windows also provides a 'collaborative debugging' capability, where two or more users can
simultaneously view/debug the same application at the same time, each from their own PC. Finally, OpenVMS Debugger Client for
Windows provides the ability to debug more than one program at a time, potentially on different host systems, without restarting the
GUI or any of the applications.

RMS Global Buffer Hashing

OpenVMS Version 7.2 replaces the present sequential global buffer lookup with a hashing scheme that significantly improves the
performance of global buffer counts in a shared file environment. As system memory size has increased over the years, RMS
performance has been affected by the increased number of global buffers used for each file. This enhancement ensures optimal RMS
performance even when a file uses the maximum number of global buffers, which is 32,767.

Kernel Threads Enhancements (Alpha)

OpenVMS V7.2 offers the following new kernel threads enhancements:

  • Capacity for a larger number of kernel threads per process. The number of kernel threads that can be created per-process is increased to 256 from 16 in the previous version of OpenVMS. The maximum value for the MULTITHREAD system parameter is also increased to 256.
  • Ability to change the base priorities of all kernel threads with a single call. A new value for the "policy" parameter to the SYS$SETPRI system service has been added. If JPI$K_ALL_THREADS is specified, the call to SYS$SETPRI changes the base priorities of all kernel threads in the target process. The SET PROCESS/PRIORITY DCL command contains a new qualifier, ALL_THREADS, that provides the same support.
  • Ability to detect a thread stack overflow. OpenVMS V7.2 introduces yellow stack zones and are available to applications using DECthreads. Yellow stack zones are a mechanism by which a stack overflow can be signaled back to an application. The application can then choose to either provide a stack overflow handler or do nothing. If an application does nothing, this mechanism helps pinpoint the failure for the application developer. Instead of an access violation being signaled, a stack overflow error is signaled.



DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, Version 5.0

DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, Version 5.0 is Compaq's industry-standard implementation of the TCP/IP networking
protocol on the OpenVMS platform (Alpha and VAX).

DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS is a networking software product that provides interoperability and resource sharing among
systems running OpenVMS, UNIX, Windows NT, and other operating systems that support TCP/IP. Version 5.0 provides a
comprehensive suite of functions and applications that support industry-standard protocols for heterogeneous network communications
and resource-sharing.

The new stack in this version is based on the Compaq DIGITAL UNIX TCP/IP stack, proven in the industry to be reliable, of high
quality, and competitive in performance. V5.0 also delivers transparent backward compatibility with earlier versions of DIGITAL
TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS.

DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, Version 5.0 still contains important features found in earlier versions. These include IP
multicasting, dynamic load balancing, host-based routing, network file access and sharing, remote terminal access, remote command
execution, network printing, mail, application development, distributed name services, network management tools, support for
point-to-point serial access, dynamic allocation of IP addresses, and more.

Here is a list of the new features:

  • CIDR---Classless Interdomain Routing is a mechanism introduced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to help prolong the life of the existing IP address space. CIDR allows networks to be built with variable length subnetworks which results in more efficient use of available IP address space.
  • PathMTU Discovery---PathMTU Discovery allows an IP host to determine the most efficient packet size for use on a particular path between the source to the destination host. This allows for the "lowest common denominator" packet size, which facilitates selective improvement of communications efficiency with other hosts.
  • DHCP---Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is based on the JOIN software product from Competitive Automation. DHCP provides a centralized approach to the configuration and maintenance of IP address space. It allows the system manager to provide dynamic allocation of IP addresses from an OpenVMS host.
  • GateD---This release provides a new alternative to dynamic routing, based on GateD Release 3.5 from the GateDaemon Project at Cornell University. The gateway routing (GATED) server and suite of interior and exterior routing protocols offer advanced routing options.
  • Industry-Standard Management Commands---To assist with the management of OpenVMS systems in a mixed UNIX and OpenVMS environment, DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, Version 5.0 provides UNIX-style management utilities to allow efficient configuration and management. For convenience of system managers who prefer the traditional DCL-style commands supported in earlier versions of the product, the older command set has been maintained.
  • xNTP---This release provides a new implementation of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) based on xNTP V3. This implementation provides several utilities and authentication support, and it retains compatibility with V1 and V2 servers.
  • DNS/BIND---This release provides a new BIND implementation based on ISC BIND 8.1.2. Features include dynamic updates, change notification, new configuration, flexible categorized logging system, IP address-based access control for queries, more efficient zone transfers, improved performance for servers with thousands of zones, and updates that may be specified on a zone-by-zone basis.
  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2) support---Provides support for network management with the Extensible SNMP software that allows customer-written programs to respond to requests and commands from SNMP based network management stations.
  • OpenVMS V7.2 support---OpenVMS V7.2 introduces support for better integration with the Windows environment. DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS, Version 5.0 supports copying of files with long file names via FTP from one OpenVMS system to another, or from OpenVMS to other systems with extended file system support.


year 2000 readiness

OpenVMS Version 7.2 is ready for the year 2000. However, you need not wait to install Version 7.2 to be Year 2000 ready. Year
2000 enhancement kits are available now through the normal service channels and on the Web for OpenVMS Version 7.1, Version
6.2, and Version 5.5-2. The OpenVMS Version 6.2 and Version 5.5-2 Year 2000 Enhancement Kits are available on the Web to
service customers only. An orderable OpenVMS Year 2000 Enhancement Kit, which includes three media types and kits for
OpenVMS Alpha and VAX Version 7.1 and Version 6.2, and OpenVMS VAX 5.5-2 is also available. Use the following part number
when ordering: QA-MT1AQ-HW.

The Year 2000 enhancement kits remove a few, minor limitations in some older, rarely used components. For more information, check
out the OpenVMS Year 2000 home page:

» h71000.www7.hp.com/openvms/products/year-2000/index.html


OpenVMS Version 7.2 Online Documentation

For Version 7.2, the OpenVMS Alpha and VAX Documentation CD-ROM supports a dual OpenVMS and Windows-based PC
format. This means that you can mount and read the CD-ROM on both OpenVMS VAX and Alpha systems and a Windows 95 or
Windows NT system.

APB Firmware Rev Check (Alpha)

Provides an enhanced firmware checking function for OpenVMS Alpha systems during a boot operation.

When you boot the OpenVMS Alpha operating system CD-ROM, the system automatically checks the version of console firmware
(which includes PALcode) running on your computer and provides more explicit information about how and when to upgrade that
firmware. (Previously, only the PALcode version was checked and the informational messages were less detailed.)

Note that after you install this version of the OpenVMS Alpha operating system on your system disk, the system will perform this
console firmware checking operation each time you boot.

DVD Support (Alpha)

OpenVMS Alpha V7.2 will support systems with a DVD-ROM drive (in replacement of a CD-ROM drive) to read a traditional
CD-ROM media disk. This is referred to as DVD "compatiblity mode" support.

ATM Kit B (Alpha)

The ATM Kit B provides an improved interface into the ATM subsystem and allows for the dynamic creation and deletion of LAN
emulation clients (LECs) and Classical IP (CLIP) clients.