Volume Shadowing for OpenVMS provides
data availability across the full range of configurations —
from single nodes to large OpenVMS Cluster systems — so you
can provide data availability where you require it most.
There are no restrictions on the location of shadow
set members beyond the valid disk configurations defined in the SPDs
for the OpenVMS operating system and for OpenVMS Cluster systems:
For the OpenVMS Operating
System: SPD 25.01.xx
For OpenVMS Cluster Software:
If an individual disk volume is already mounted
as a member of an active shadow set, the disk volume cannot be mounted
as a standalone disk on another node.
Maximum Number of Shadow Sets
You can mount a maximum of 500 disks in two- or three-member
shadow sets on a standalone system or in an OpenVMS Cluster system.
A limit of 10,000 single member shadow sets is allowed on a
standalone system or on an OpenVMS Cluster system. Dismounted shadow
sets, unused shadow sets, and shadow sets with no bitmaps allocated
to them are included in this total. These limits are independent of
controller and disk type. The shadow sets can be mounted as public
or private volumes.
OpenVMS Version 8.4 supports six-member shadow sets as compared
to the previous three-member shadow sets. This is useful for multisite
disaster tolerant configuration. In a three-member shadow set, a three-site
disaster tolerant configuration has only one shadow member per site.
In this scenario, when two sites fail, the member left out in the
surviving site becomes a single point of failure. With six-member
shadow set support, you can have two members of a shadow set in each
of the three sites providing high availability.
DS10 $ SHOW DEV DSA5678:
Device Device Error Volume Free Trans Mnt
Name Status Count Label Blocks Count Cnt
DSA5678: Mounted 0 SIXMEMBER 682944 1 1
$6$DKB0: (WSC236) ShadowSetMember 0 (member of DSA5678:)
$6$DKB100: (WSC236) ShadowSetMember 0 (member of DSA5678:)
$6$DKB200: (WSC236) ShadowSetMember 0 (member of DSA5678:)
$6$DKB300: (WSC236) ShadowSetMember 0 (member of DSA5678:)
$6$DKB400: (WSC236) ShadowSetMember 0 (member of DSA5678:)
$6$DKB500: (WSC236) ShadowSetMember 0 (member of DSA5678:)
Mixed Version Cluster Compatibility
All systems that are going to mount a shadow set using "Extended
Memberships" (up to six members) must be on OpenVMS Version 8.4 .
If the systems that have the virtual unit mounted are not "Extended
Memberships" capable, then any attempt to mount more than three members
fails. If a system that is not capable of "Extended Memberships"
tries to MOUNT a virtual unit that is using "Extended Memberships"
on other nodes, the MOUNT command fails. Once
the virtual unit is enabled to use "Extended Memberships", the characteristic
is maintained until the virtual unit is dismounted clusterwide, even
if the membership is reduced to less than four members. This feature
is not ported to VAX. The virtual unit characteristic voting insures
compatibility. If an Alpha or Integrity server disk is mounted without
the new feature, then the virtual unit can also mount on the VAX.
Backward Compatibility of Six-Member Shadow Set
A new area of the Storage Control Block (SCB) of disk is used
to store the extended membership arrays. Therefore, an attempt to
MOUNT a six member shadow set on a previous version works only if
the members are specified in the command line (maximum of three members).
The $MOUNT/INCLUDE qualifier in previous versions fails to find the
new membership area in the SCB and therefore it does not include any
other former members.
Shadowing System Disks
You can shadow system disks as well as data disks.
Thus, a system disk need not be a single point of failure for any
system that boots from that disk. System disk shadowing becomes especially
important for OpenVMS Cluster systems that use a common system disk
from which multiple computers boot. Volume shadowing makes use of the OpenVMS distributed
lock manager, and the quorum disk must be accessed before locking
is enabled. Note that you cannot shadow quorum disks.
and Alpha systems can share data on shadowed data disks, but separate
system disks are required — one for each architecture.
Obtaining Dump Files of Shadowed System Disk When Minicopy
Is Used (Alpha Only)
If you use a minicopy
operation to return a member to the shadow set and you are running
OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2–2 or Version 7.3, you must perform
additional steps to access the dump file (SYSDUMP.DMP) from a system
disk shadow set. This section describes these steps.
Starting with OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.3–1,
this procedure is not required because of the /SHADOW_MEMBER qualifier
introduced for the System Dump Analyzer (SDA). SDA (referenced in step
2) is the OpenVMS utility for analyzing dump files and is documented
in the OpenVMS System Analysis Tools Manual.
When the primitive file system writes a crash
dump, the writes are not recorded in the bitmap data structure. Therefore,
perform the following steps:
Check the console output
at the time of the system failure to determine which device contains
the system dump file.
The console displays
the device to which the crash dump is written. That shadow set member
contains the only full copy of that file.
Assign a low value to
the member to which the dump is written by issuing the following command:
$ SET DEVICE/READ_COST=nnn $allo_class$ddcu
By setting the
read cost to a low value on that member, any reads done by SDA or
by the SDA command COPY are directed to that member. HP recommends
setting /READ_COST to 1.
After you have analyzed
or copied the system dump, you must return the
read cost value of the shadow set member to the previous setting ---
either the default setting assigned automatically by the volume shadowing
software or the value you had previously assigned. If you do not, all read I/O is directed to the member with the READ_COST
setting of 1, which can unnecessarily degrade read performance.
To change the READ_COST setting of a shadow set
member to its default value, issue the following command:
$ SET DEVICE/READ_COST=0 DSAnnnn
EFI Shell Precautions on Shadowed System Disks
On each Integrity server system disk, there can exist up to
two File Allocation Table (FAT)s partitions that contain OpenVMS
boot loaders, Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI) applications and
hardware diagnostics. The OpenVMS bootstrap partition and, when present,
the diagnostics partition are respectively mapped to the following
container files on the OpenVMS system disk:
The contents of the FAT partitions appear as fsn:
devices at the console EFI Shell> prompt. The fsn: devices can be directly modified
by the user command input at EFI Shell> prompt and by the EFI console or EFI diagnostic applications. Neither
OpenVMS nor any EFI console environments that might share the system
disk are notified of partition modifications; OpenVMS and console
environments are unaware of console modifications. You must ensure
the proper coordination and proper synchronization of the changes
with OpenVMS and with any other EFI consoles that might be in use.
You must take precautions when modifying the console in configurations
using either or both of the following:
OpenVMS host-based volume shadowing for the OpenVMS
Integrity server system disk
Shared system disks and parallel EFI console access
across Integrity server environments sharing a common system disk
You must preemptively reduce the OpenVMS system disk environments
to a single-member host-based volume shadow set or to a non-shadowed
system disk, and you must externally coordinate access to avoid parallel
accesses to the Shell> prompt whenever
making shell-level modifications to the fsn: devices, such as:
Installing or operating diagnostics within the diagnostics
Allowing diagnostics in the partition (or running
from removable media) to modify the boot or the diagnostic partition
on an OpenVMS Integrity server system disk.
Modifying directly or indirectly the boot or the diagnostics
partition within these environments from the EFI Shell> prompt.
If you do not take these precautions, any modifications made
within the fsn: device associated with the boot
partition or the device associated with the diagnostic partition can
be overwritten and lost immediately or after the next OpenVMS host-based
volume shadowing full-merge operation.
For example, when the system disk is shadowed and changes are
made by the EFI console shell to the contents of these container files
on one of the physical members, the volume shadowing software is unaware
that a write is done to a physical device. If the system disk is a
multiple member shadow set, you must make the same changes to all
of the other physical devices that are the current shadow set members.
If this is not done, when a full merge operation is next performed
on that system disk, the contents of these files might regress. The
merge operation might occur many days or weeks after any EFI changes
Furthermore, if a full merge is active on the shadowed system
disk, you must not make changes to either file using the console EFI
To suspend a full merge that is in progress or to determine
the membership of a shadow set, see Chapter 8.
The precautions are applicable only for the Integrity server
system disks that are configured for host-based volume shadowing,
or are configured and shared across multiple OpenVMS Integrity server
systems. Configurations that are using controller-based RAID, that
are not using host-based shadowing with the system disk, or that are
not shared with other OpenVMS Integrity server systems, are not affected.
Using Minicopy in a Mixed-Version OpenVMS Cluster System
To use the minicopy feature in a mixed-version
OpenVMS Cluster system of Integrity
server and Alpha systems, every node in the cluster
must use a version of OpenVMS that supports this feature. Minicopy
is supported on OpenVMS Integrity server, starting with Version 8.2
and on OpenVMS Alpha, starting with Version 7.2-2.
Shadow Sets, Bound Volume Sets, and Stripe Sets
Shadow sets also can be constituents of a bound volume
set or a stripe set. A bound volume set consists of one or more disk
volumes that have been bound into a volume set by specifying the /BIND
qualifier with the MOUNT command. “Shadowing Disks Across an OpenVMS Cluster System ” describes
shadowing across OpenVMS Cluster systems. “Striping (RAID) Implementation” contains more information about striping
and how RAID (redundant arrays of independent disks) technology relates
to volume shadowing.
Shadowing Disks Across an OpenVMS Cluster System
implementation of volume shadowing allows disks that are connected
to multiple physical controllers to be shadowed in an OpenVMS Cluster
system. There is no requirement that all members of a shadow set be
connected to the same controller. Controller independence allows you
to manage shadow sets regardless of their controller connection or
their location in the OpenVMS Cluster system and helps provide improved
data availability and flexible configurations.
For clusterwide shadowing, members can be located anywhere
in an OpenVMS Cluster system and served by MSCP servers across any
supported OpenVMS Cluster interconnect, including the CI (computer
interconnect), Ethernet (10/100 and Gigabit), ATM, Digital Storage
Systems Interconnect (DSSI), and Fiber Distributed Data Interface
(FDDI). For example, OpenVMS Cluster systems using FDDI and wide area
network services can be hundreds of miles apart, which further increases
the availability and disaster tolerance of a system.
Figure 1-3 shows
how shadow-set members are on line to local adapters located on different
nodes. In the figure, a disk volume is local to each of the nodes
ATABOY and ATAGRL. The MSCP server provides access to the shadow set
members over the Ethernet. Even though the disk volumes are local
to different nodes, the disks are members of the same shadow set.
A member that is local to one node can be accessed by the remote node
through the MSCP server.
Figure 1-3 Shadow Sets Accessed Through the MSCP Server
The shadowing software maintains shadow sets in
a distributed fashion on each node that mounts the shadow set in the
OpenVMS Cluster system. In an OpenVMS Cluster environment, each node
creates and maintains shadow sets independently. The shadowing software
on each node maps each shadow set, represented by its virtual unit
name, to its respective physical units. Shadow sets are not served
to other nodes. When a shadow set must be accessed by multiple nodes,
each node creates an identical shadow set. The shadowing software
maintains clusterwide membership coherence for shadow sets mounted
on multiple nodes. For shadow sets that are mounted on an OpenVMS
Cluster system, mounting or dismounting a shadow set on one node in
the cluster does not affect applications or user functions executing
on other nodes in the system. For example, you can dismount the shadow
set from one node in an OpenVMS Cluster system and leave the shadow
set operational on the remaining nodes on which it is mounted.
HBMM Configuration Requirements
The configuration requirements for enabling HBMM
on an OpenVMS Cluster system are:
In a cluster of HP Integrity
server and Alpha server systems, all Integrity server systems must
be running OpenVMS Integrity servers Version 8.2 or later and all
OpenVMS Alpha systems must be running OpenVMS Version 7.3-2 with the
HBMM kit or Version 8.2 or later.
The following restrictions pertain to the configuration
and operation of HBMM in an OpenVMS Cluster system.
Cluster Configuration Restrictions
An HBMM-enabled shadow set can be mounted only
on HBMM-capable systems. However, systems running versions of OpenVMS
that support bitmaps can co-exist in a cluster with systems that support
HBMM, but these systems cannot mount an HBMM-enabled shadow set. The
following OpenVMS versions support bitmaps but do not include HBMM
OpenVMS Alpha Versions
7.2-2 through Version 7.3-2. (Version 7.3-2 supports HBMM only if
the Volume Shadowing HBMM kit is installed.)
For OpenVMS Version 8.2, the earliest version
of OpenVMS Alpha that is supported in a migration or warranted configuration
is OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.3-2.
CAUTION: The inclusion of a system, in a cluster, that
does not support bitmaps turns off HBMM in the cluster and deletes
all the existing HBMM and minicopy bitmaps.
Shadow Set Member Restrictions
HBMM can be used with all disks that are supported
by Volume Shadowing for OpenVMS except disks on HSJ, HSC, and HSD
System Parameter Restrictions
Host-based minimerge operations can only take
place on a system that has an HBMM master bitmap for that shadow set.
If you set the system parameter SHADOW_MAX_COPY to zero on all the
systems that have a master bitmap for that shadow set, HBMM cannot
occur on any of those systems, nor can full merges occur on any of
the other systems (that lack a master bitmap) on which the shadow
set is mounted, even if SHADOW_MAX_COPY is set to 1 or higher.
Consider a scenario in which a merge is required
on a shadow set that is mounted on some systems that have HBMM master
bitmaps and on some systems that do not have HBMM master bitmaps.
In such a scenario, the systems that do not have an HBMM master bitmap
do not perform the merge as long as the shadow set is mounted on a
system with an HBMM master bitmap. For information on how to recover
from this situation, see “Managing Transient States in Progress”
HBMM in a Mixed-Version or Mixed-Architecture OpenVMS Cluster System
HBMM is supported on OpenVMS Integrity servers
Version 8.2 and on OpenVMS Alpha Version 8.2. HBMM is also supported
on OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.3-2 with an HBMM kit.
HBMM does not require that all cluster members
have HBMM support, but does require that all cluster
members support bitmaps.
Earlier versions of OpenVMS that support bitmaps
are on OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.2-2 and later.
After an HBMM-capable system mounts a shadow set,
and HBMM is enabled for use, only the cluster members that are HBMM-capable
can mount that shadow set.
Enhanced Shadowing Features
Minicopy requires that all cluster members must
have minicopy support. HBMM requires that all cluster members must
support bitmaps; however, it is not necessary that they all support
To enforce this restriction (and to provide for
future enhancements), shadow sets using the HBMM feature are marked
as having Enhanced Shadowing Features. This is included in the SHOW SHADOW DSAn display, as are the particular features that are in use, as shown
in the following example:
$ SHOW SHADOW DSA0
_DSA0: Volume Label: TST0
Virtual Unit State: Steady State
Enhanced Shadowing Features in use:Host-Based Minimerge (HBMM)
VU Timeout Value 3600 VU Site Value 0
Copy/Merge Priority 5000 Mini Merge Enabled
Served Path Delay 30
HBMM Reset Threshold: 50000
HBMM Master lists:
Any 1 of the nodes: CSGF1,CSGF2
HBMM bitmaps are active on CSGF1
Modified blocks since bitmap creation: 254
Read Cost 2 Site 0
Member Timeout 10
Device $252$DKA100 Master Member
Read Cost 501 Site 0
Member Timeout 10
Once a shadow set is marked as using Enhanced
Shadowing Features, it remains marked until it is dismounted on all
systems in the cluster. When you remount the shadow set, the requested
features are reevaluated. If the shadow set does not use any enhanced
features, it is noted on the display. This shadow set is available
for mounting even on nodes that do not support the enhanced features.
Systems that are not HBMM-capable fail to mount
HBMM shadow sets. However, if HBMM is not used by the specified shadow
set, the shadow set can be mounted on earlier versions of OpenVMS
that are not HBMM-capable.
Mount Utility Messages
If a MOUNT command for an HBMM shadow set is issued
on a system that supports bitmaps but is not HBMM-capable, an error
message is displayed. (As noted in “HBMM Restrictions ”, systems running versions of Volume
Shadowing for OpenVMS that support bitmaps but are not HBMM-capable
can be members of the cluster with systems that support HBMM, but
they cannot mount HBMM shadow sets.)
The message varies, depending on the number of
members in the shadow set and the manner in which the mount is attempted.
The mount may appear to hang (for approximately 30 seconds) while
the Mount utility attempts to retry the command, and then fails.
A Mount utility remedial kit that eliminates the
delay and displays a more useful message may be available in the future
for earlier versions of OpenVMS that support bitmaps.
When a shadow set is marked as an HBMM shadow
set, it remains marked until it is dismounted from all the systems
in a cluster. When you remount a shadow set, if it is no longer using
HBMM, it can be mounted on earlier versions of OpenVMS that are not