Specifies a virtual address or a range of virtual addresses (where the
second address is larger than the first) whose contents you want to
examine. If you specify a range of addresses, separate the beginning
and ending addresses with a colon (:).
A location can be any valid arithmetic expression containing arithmetic
or logical operators or previously assigned symbols. Radix qualifiers
determine the radix in which the address is interpreted; hexadecimal is
the initial default radix. Symbol names are always interpreted in the
radix in which they were defined. The radix operators %X, %D, or %O can
precede the location. A hexadecimal value must begin with a number (or
be preceded by %X).
The DEPOSIT and EXAMINE commands maintain a pointer to the current
memory location. The EXAMINE command sets this pointer to the last
location examined when you specify an EXAMINE command. You can refer to
this location using the period (.) in a subsequent EXAMINE command or
The EXAMINE command displays the contents of virtual memory. The
address is displayed in hexadecimal format and the contents are
displayed in the radix requested, as follows:
If the address specified is not accessible to user mode, four asterisks
(*) are displayed in the contents field.
Radix Qualifiers: The radix default for a DEPOSIT
command or an EXAMINE command determines how the command interprets
numeric literals. The initial default radix is hexadecimal; all numeric
literals in the command line are assumed to be hexadecimal values. If a
radix qualifier modifies an EXAMINE command, that radix becomes the
default for subsequent EXAMINE and DEPOSIT commands, until another
qualifier overrides it. For example:
$ EXAMINE/DECIMAL 900
The EXAMINE command interprets the location 900 as a decimal number and
displays the contents of that location in decimal. All subsequent
DEPOSIT and EXAMINE commands assume that numbers you enter for
addresses and data are decimal. Note that the EXAMINE command always
displays the address location in hexadecimal format.
Symbol names defined by = (assignment statement) commands are always
interpreted in the radix in which they were defined.
Note that hexadecimal values entered as examine locations or as data to
be deposited must begin with a numeric character (0 to 9); otherwise,
the command interpreter assumes that you have entered a symbol name,
and attempts symbol substitution.
You can use the radix operators %X, %D, or %O to override the current
default when you enter the EXAMINE command. For example:
$ EXAMINE/DECIMAL %X900
This command requests a decimal display of the data in the location
specified as hexadecimal 900.
Length Qualifiers: The initial default length unit for
the EXAMINE command is a longword. The EXAMINE command displays data,
one longword at a time, with blanks between longwords. If a length
qualifier modifies the command, that length becomes the default length
of a memory location for subsequent EXAMINE and DEPOSIT commands, until
another qualifier overrides it.
Restriction on Placement of Qualifiers: The EXAMINE
command analyzes expressions arithmetically. Therefore, qualifiers are
interpreted correctly only when they appear immediately after the
Displays the data at the specified location in ASCII format.
Binary values that do not have ASCII equivalents are displayed as
When you specify the /ASCII qualifier, or when ASCII mode is the
default, hexadecimal is used as the default radix for numeric literals
that are specified on the command line.
Displays data at the specified location, one byte at a time.
Displays the contents of the specified location in decimal format.
Displays the contents of the specified location in hexadecimal format.
Displays data at the specified location, one longword at a time.
Displays the contents of the specified location in octal format.
Displays data at the specified location, one word at a time.
In this example, the RUN command begins execution of the image
MYPROG.EXE. While MYPROG is running, pressing Ctrl/Y interrupts its
execution, and the EXAMINE command displays the contents of virtual
memory location 2678 (hexadecimal).
In this example, before executing the program TEST.EXE, symbolic names
are defined for the program's base address and for labels READBUF and
ENDBUF; all are expressed in hexadecimal format using the radix
operator %X. READBUF and ENDBUF define offsets from the program base.
While the program is executing, pressing Ctrl/Y interrupts it, and the
EXAMINE command displays in ASCII format all data between the specified