HP OpenVMS Version 8.4 New Features and
This chapter describes the virtualization features of the OpenVMS
3.1 OpenVMS as a Guest Operating System on Integrity VM
OpenVMS for Integrity servers Version 8.4 is supported as a guest
operating system on HP Integrity Virtual Machines (Integrity VM).
Integrity VM is a soft partitioning and virtualization technology
within the HP Virtual Server Environment, which enables you to create
multiple virtual servers or machines with shared resourcing within a
single HP Integrity server or nPartition.
Each virtual machine hosts its own "Guest" operating system instance,
applications, and users. Integrity VM runs on any Intel VT-i enabled HP
Integrity servers including blades. On HP Integrity servers, the
Integrity VM Host runs under HP-UX, while OpenVMS can run as a guest.
3.1.1 Licensing Requirements
For information about licensing OpenVMS as a Guest Operating System on
Integrity VM, see HP OpenVMS License Management Utility Manual.
3.1.2 Supported Hardware
OpenVMS Guest operating system on Integrity VM is supported on VT-i
(Intel Virtualization Technology for the Intel Itanium architecture)
enabled Intel Itanium processors. Currently Intel Itanium 9000 and 9100
series support VT-i.
For more information on Integrity VM, see:
3.1.3 Installing OpenVMS as a Guest Operating System
To install OpenVMS as a guest operating system, see Chapter 3 in HP
OpenVMS Version 8.4 for Integrity Servers Upgrade and Installation
3.1.4 OpenVMS Features as a Guest Operating System
OpenVMS as a guest operating system supports the following features:
- The OpenVMS guest OS is SMP enabled and supports up to 64 GB
- The OpenVMS guests support virtualized disk drives and network
interfaces provided by Integrity VM. Integrity VM presents disks and
logical volumes as SCSI disks (DK devices on OpenVMS guests) and
virtual network interfaces as Intel Gigabit Cards (EI devices on
OpenVMS guests) regardless of the physical network card or mass storage
connection for the Host system.
- Limited support for online migration - supports only the
stand-alone guest configurations.
- Supports Accelerated Virtual IO (AVIO) LAN and SCSI drivers.
- Supports management and monitoring of OpenVMS guest operating
system using the VSE suite of products.
- OpenVMS guest systems are cluster enabled and supports LAN and
cluster over IP.
For more information, see the HP OpenVMS Version 8.4 Release
3.2 ID-VSE for OpenVMS
The HP Insight Dynamics - Virtual Server Environment (ID-VSE) is an
integrated suite of multi-platform products that helps you to
continuously analyze, and optimize physical and virtual server
resources. It helps you to reduce the cost associated with capacity and
energy planning, provisioning, upgrades, and making changes in your
ID-VSE integrates with HP Systems Insight Manager (HP SIM) running on a
central management station (CMS), and manages one or more managed nodes
in your network.
The following suite of ID-VSE products are supported on OpenVMS Version
HP Virtualization Manager
The Virtualization Manager software provides a framework for
visualizing your virtual server environment (VSE) at different levels
of detail. All the systems and workloads are displayed in a graphical
view. The hierarchical relationships between systems and their current
utilization are displayed on a single screen. It also allows you to
access additional VSE Management software for management and
configuration of systems and workloads. Virtualization Manager collects
utilization data for processor, memory, network, and disk from OpenVMS
managed nodes through the Utilization WBEM provider.
HP Capacity Advisor
The Capacity Advisor software provides capacity analysis and planning
to help optimize the workloads across VSE for the highest utilization
of server resources. It also provides scenario analysis to optimize the
current server resources and plan for future workload expansion and
server consolidation. Capacity Advisor collects utilization data for
processor, memory, network, and disk from the OpenVMS managed nodes
through the Utilization WBEM provider.
HP Global Workload Manager
HP Global Workload Manager (gWLM) is a multi-system, multi-OS workload
manager that serves as an intelligent policy engine in the VSE
software. It simplifies the deployment of automated workload management
policies across multiple servers and provides centralized monitoring
and improved server utilization to meet the service-level objectives.
On OpenVMS with Global Workload Manager, all the capabilities of iCAP,
TiCAP can be automated based on the defined business policies. For
example, if performance goals are not met, additional processors can be
automatically turned on using TiCAP or usage rights can be dynamically
moved from a partition.
To use the Global Workload Manager, the gWLM agent must be running on
the OpenVMS managed nodes.
This chapter describes new features relating to performance
enhancements in this version of the HP OpenVMS operating system.
4.1 RAD Support (Integrity servers Only)
OpenVMS Version 8.4 has been enhanced to support RAD for cell-based
Integrity server systems. This feature enables OpenVMS to utilize the
advantages of cell-based systems configured with cell local memory
(CLM). On systems with both CLM and interleaved memory (ILM)
configured, OpenVMS allocates process memory from the CLM within a cell
and schedules the process to run on a CPU within the same cell. The
overall memory latency and bandwidth for the process is improved by
reducing the frequency of a CPU in one cell referencing memory in
To use the RAD support, CLM must be configured on the operating system
using the Partition Manager software. The Partition Manager provides
the system administrators with a graphical user interface (GUI) to
configure and manage nPartitions on HP server systems. The Partition
Manager is supported on HP-UX, Microsoft Windows, Red Hat Enterprise
Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. This software interacts with
the user through a web browser running on a client system. The client
system can be the same as the server system, or it can be a separate
workstation, or a PC. Note that the Partition Manager does not run on
OpenVMS. For more information and for software downloads, see:
OpenVMS recommends configuring systems with a combination of both CLM
and ILM. Initially, configure 50% of the memory in each cell as CLM.
For best performance, follow the hardware guidelines for configuring
systems with combinations of CLM and ILM. For cell-based systems, the
number of cells and the amount of ILM must be in power of 2.
By default, on a system configured with CLM, OpenVMS boots with RAD
support turned on. RAD support can be turned off by setting the
RAD_SUPPORT system parameter to 0. The recommended method of turning
RAD support off is to configure all the memory on the system as ILM.
When ILM and CLM are both present on an Integrity server system, the
ILM is seen as an additional RAD. Because all CPUs on the system have a
similar average memory latency when accessing this memory, all CPUs are
associated with this RAD. Note that there is no Alpha hardware that has
both RADs and ILM, and thus this extra RAD never appears on Alpha.
For example, consider an rx7640 system with 2 cells, 16 GB of memory
per cell, and 8 cores per cell. If you configure the system with 50%
CLM per cell, this system boots and OpenVMS configures the system with
3 RADs. RAD 0 contains the CLM and cores from the first cell. RAD 1
contains the CLM and cores from the second cell. A third RAD (RAD 2)
contains the ILM and all cores.
Although there are 3 RADs, processes are assigned only to the first 2
RADs as home RADs. The RAD in which a core first appears is the RAD
with the best memory access for the core. The $GETSYI system service
and F$GETSYI lexical function enumerate this for the RAD_CPUS item code.
During system boot, the operating system assigns a base RAD from which
shared and operating system data is allocated. The base RAD that the
operating system assigns is the RAD with ILM because all CPUs have
similar access to this memory. Non-paged pool is allocated from the
base RAD. By default, per-RAD non-paged pool is turned off.
By default, global page faults are now satisfied with pages from the
base RAD compared to the RAD of the CPU where the fault occurred.
Because global sections can be accessed by many processes running on
all RADs, pages are allocated from the RAD with ILM.
For more information about RAD support, see the HP OpenVMS Alpha Partitioning and Galaxy Guide.
4.1.1 Page Zeroing for RAD based Systems (Integrity servers and Alpha)
Within the idle loop, CPUs can "zero" the deleted pages of memory to
satisfy the future demand-zero page faults. The ZERO_LIST_HI system
parameter indicates the maximum number of zeroed pages that the
operating system must keep zeroed. For systems with multiple RADs,
ZERO_LIST_HI specifies the maximum number of zeroed pages per RAD.
4.1.2 SYS$EXAMPLES:RAD.COM (Integrity servers and Alpha)
The SYS$EXAMPLES:RAD.COM command procedure provides an example for
using the RAD related F$GETSYI item codes, RAD_CPUS and RAD_MEMORY.
This procedure has been updated to produce a more concise view of the
RAD configuration for Integrity servers and Alpha systems.
Node: SYS123 Version: V8.4 System: HP rx7640 (1.60GHz/12.0MB)
RAD Memory (GB) CPUs
=== =========== ===============
0 3.99 0-7
1 3.99 8-15
2 7.99 0-15
This procedure is run on an rx7640 system with 16 GB of memory, with
each cell configured to have 50% CLM. A portion of the CLM from each
cell and the ILM memory may be allocated for the console, and thus not
available for use by the operating system. As a result, you do not see
4 GB for the first 2 RADs and 8 GB for the RAD with ILM.
4.1.3 RAD Memory Usage (Integrity servers and Alpha)
To determine the memory usage per RAD, use the SDA command SHOW
PFN/RAD. This command reports the number of free and zeroed pages per
RAD. The CPU is extensively used when you execute the SHOW PFN/RAD
command. Hence, use SHOW PFN/RAD only on occasions if you want to check
the memory usage per RAD.
Disaster Tolerance and Cluster Features
This chapter describes new features relating to disaster tolerance and
clusters of the OpenVMS operating system.
5.1 Cluster over IP
OpenVMS Version 8.4 has been enhanced with the Cluster over IP feature.
Cluster over IP provides the ability to form clusters beyond a single
LAN or VLAN segment using the industry standard Internet Protocol. This
feature provides improved disaster tolerance.
Cluster over IP enables you to:
- Form a cluster between nodes in data centers that are in different
LAN or VLAN segment.
- Form geographically distributed disaster tolerant cluster with IP
- Improve total cost of ownership.
The cluster over IP feature includes:
- PEdriver to use UDP protocol in addition to IEEE 802.3 LAN for
system communication services (SCS) packets.
- Reliable delivery of SCS packets by PEDRIVER using User Datagram
- IP multicast and optional IP unicast to discover nodes in an IP
- Ability to load TCP/IP services during boot time to enable
formation of cluster in IP only environment.
HP TCP/IP services for OpenVMS 5.7 is required to use the cluster over
The Cluster over IP feature is also referred to as IP Cluster
For more information, see the Guidelines for OpenVMS Cluster
Configurations and HP OpenVMS Cluster Systems guides.
5.2 Volume Shadowing for OpenVMS Enhancements
This section describes the new features for HP Volume Shadowing for
OpenVMS Version 8.4. For information about these new features, see the
HP Volume Shadowing for OpenVMS.
5.2.1 Support for Six-Member Shadow set
OpenVMS Version 8.4 supports a maximum of six-member shadow set
compared to the previous three-member shadow set. This is aimed at
multi-site disaster tolerant configuration. With three member shadow
set, a three site disaster tolerant configuration will have only one
shadow member per site. In this case, during failure of two sites, the
member left out in the surviving site becomes a single point of
failure. With six-member shadow set support, you can have two members
of a shadow set in each of the three sites providing high availability.
5.2.2 New DISMOUNT Keyword for HBMM
All the 12 write bitmaps are used by shadowing as multiuse bitmaps,
thus removing the single point of failure of single minicopy master
bitmaps. To invoke this feature, a new keyword is added to the SET
where; n specifies the number of HBMM bitmaps to convert to multiuse
bitmaps when a member is dismounted from a shadow set with the
5.2.3 Fast Minicopy and Minimerge
Shadowing has been enhanced to increase the performance of shadow
minicopy and minimerge using "looking ahead" of the next bit that is
set in the write bitmap.
The number of QIOs between SHADOW_SERVER and SYS$SHDRIVER is
drastically reduced using this method, thus allowing minicopy and
minimerge to complete faster.
5.2.4 New Qualifiers for SET SHADOW
Following are the new parameters added to the SET SHADOW command:
- /DISABLE=SPLIT_READ_LBNS - disables the "split read lbn" behavior
and as a result the reads are alternated between the source shadow set
members having the same read_cost and device queue length.
- /ENABLE=SPLIT_READ_LBNS - logically divides the shadow set members
having the same read cost into equal groups of logical block numbers
(LBNs). When reads are performed to the virtual unit, they are read
from the corresponding LBN group disk. This results in the maximum
usage of the controller read-ahead cache.
- /STALL=WRITES[=nnn] - where nnn equals the number of seconds to
stall the write. This qualifier will be useful if a user wants to stall
the write operations for "nnn" seconds. If no value is specified for
"nnn" seconds, the lock is released after SHADOW_MBR_TMO seconds. The
default is SHADOW_MBR_TMO.
- /NOSTALL=WRITES[=nnn] - releases the write lock after "nnn" seconds
so that the write operation continues on the shadow set.
5.2.5 Performance Improvement in Write Bitmaps
Write Bitmaps (WBM) is a feature used by OpenVMS during minimerge and
minicopy operations of Shadowing minimerge and minicopy. Information,
about which blocks on a disk are written, is transmitted to other nodes
within the cluster. The following updates have been made in this
Asynchronous SetBit Messages
There can be multiple master bitmap nodes for a shadow set. Currently,
SetBit messages are sent to the multiple master bitmap nodes
synchronously. Only when the response for the SetBit message is
received from the first remote master bitmap node, is the message sent
to the next master bitmap node. When done with all of the remote master
bitmap nodes, the I/O is resumed. SetBit messages are now sent to all
multiple master bitmap nodes asynchronously. I/O operation is resumed
when the responses from all the master bitmap nodes are received. This
reduces the stall time of the I/O operation by the write bitmap code.
Reduced SetBit Messages for Sequential I/O
If sequential writes occur to a disk, it results in sending Setbit
messages that set sequential bits in the remote bitmap. The WBM code
will now recognize where a number of prior bits in the bitmap have
already been set. In this scenario, the WBM code will set additional
bits so that if sequential writes should continue, fewer Setbit
messages are required. Assuming the sequential I/O continues, the
number of Setbit messages will be reduced by about a factor of 10 and
thus improve the I/O rate for sequential writes.
Storage Devices and I/O Support
This chapter describes the support added for the Storage devices and
I/O controllers in this version of the OpenVMS operating system.
6.1 8 Gb Fibre Channel PCIe Adapter Support
Support for 1-port 8 Gb Fibre Channel Adapter (AH400A) and 2-port 8 Gb
Fibre Channel Adapter (AH401A) PCI-Express (PCIe) has been added. For
more information, see:
OpenVMS also supports 2-port 8 Gb Fibre Channel Mezzanine Card for HP
BladeSystem c-Class (product number 451871-B21).
6.2 PCI Sound Card HP AD317A PCI Support
Limited support for HP AD317A PCI sound card on Integrity servers has
6.3 Storage Devices and I/O Controllers Supported After the Initial OpenVMS V8.3--1H1 Release
The following list of storage devices and I/O controllers were released
after OpenVMS V8.3--1H1 was shipped. V8.3--1H1 support was introduced
through patch kits; all of these devices will be qualified and
supported by OpenVMS Version 8.4.
- HP Smart Array P700m
- HP Smart Array P411
- HP StorageWorks MDS600
- HP StorageWorks D2D Backup Systems
- HP StorageWorks Ultrium Tape blades
- HP StorageWorks Secure Key Manager (SKM)
- MSL LTO4 Encryption Kit
- HP StorageWorks MSA2000fc Modular Smart Array (FC)
- HP StorageWorks MSA2000sa Modular Smart Array (SAS)
- 2xGigE LAN (Intel 82575), 1x10/100/1000 Management LAN
- P2000 G3