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HP OpenVMS System Management Utilities Reference Manual

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SHUTDOWN shuts down the system and awaits a manual reboot. To use the new system parameter values generated in the SETPARAMS phase, specify either SHUTDOWN or REBOOT as the end phase. You can define the logical name AGEN$SHUTDOWN_TIME (using the DCL command DEFINE) to specify the number of minutes before shutdown occurs.

SHUTDOWN requires the SETPRV privilege.

6.4.8 REBOOT

REBOOT automatically shuts down and reboots the system, thus installing the new parameter values. To install the new system parameter values generated in the SETPARAMS phase, specify either SHUTDOWN or REBOOT as the end phase. You can define the logical name AGEN$SHUTDOWN_TIME (using the DCL command DEFINE) to specify the number of minutes before shutdown occurs.

REBOOT requires the SETPRV privilege.

6.4.9 HELP

HELP displays help information about AUTOGEN to the screen. The HELP phase is only valid as the start phase command line parameter. When you specify HELP for the start phase, the end phase and execution mode parameters are ignored.

6.5 Execution Modes

Specify an execution mode when you invoke AUTOGEN to control how AUTOGEN uses feedback. Table 6-2 lists the execution-mode options.

Table 6-2 AUTOGEN Execution Modes
Option Description
FEEDBACK Specifies that AUTOGEN run in feedback mode, using dynamic feedback collected during the SAVPARAMS phase to make its calculations.
NOFEEDBACK Specifies that AUTOGEN not use feedback in the calculations. The feedback from the SAVPARAMS phase is ignored. Use NOFEEDBACK mode for the initial system installation or upgrade. NOFEEDBACK supersedes the execution-mode option INITIAL, which was used in a previous version of the operating system.
CHECK_FEEDBACK Specifies that AUTOGEN use feedback in its calculations as long as the feedback is valid. If feedback is suspect, AUTOGEN does not use feedback in the calculations, but continues through the specified end phase.
Blank If you do not specify an execution mode, AUTOGEN uses feedback in the calculations by default. However, if AUTOGEN determines that the feedback might be suspect, it performs the calculations, issues the feedback report, and stops before modifying any parameters or system files, even if you specified an end phase of GENFILES, SETPARAMS, SHUTDOWN or REBOOT.

6.6 Files Used by AUTOGEN

Table 6-3 lists the files AUTOGEN uses during each phase.

Table 6-3 Files Used by AUTOGEN
AUTOGEN Phase Input Files1 Output Files1
(and secondary page
and swap files)
*IA64VMSSYS.PAR (Integrity servers)

*IA64VMSSYS.OLD (Integrity servers)
REBOOT None None

1All files except VMSIMAGES.DAT, which contains the installed image list, reside in the SYS$SYSTEM directory. VMSIMAGES.DAT resides in the SYS$MANAGER directory.
2From software installation kit
3Also includes collected hardware configuration information

6.7 AUTOGEN Usage Summary

The AUTOGEN command procedure runs automatically when your system is installed or upgraded to set appropriate values for system parameters and sizes for system page, swap, and dump files.

Execute AUTOGEN to reset system parameter values and system file sizes. The new values and file sizes take effect the next time the system is booted.


@SYS$UPDATE:AUTOGEN [start-phase] [end-phase] [execution-mode]



Specify the phase where AUTOGEN is to begin executing. Table 6-1 lists the options for the end-phase parameter.

The phase specified for start-phase must either precede or be identical to the phase specified for end-phase, according to the sequence shown in Table 6-1. If you do not supply an option for the start-phase parameter, enter a null argument (that is, "" ). If you do not specify a start phase, GENPARAMS is the default.


Specify the phase where AUTOGEN is to complete executing. Table 6-1 lists the options for the end-phase parameter. If you do not specify an end phase, the end phase has the same value as the start phase by default.


Specify one of the following execution-mode options to control how AUTOGEN uses feedback:
  • Blank

Table 6-2 describes each execution-mode option.


To invoke AUTOGEN, use the following syntax to enter a command at the DCL command prompt:

$ @SYS$UPDATE:AUTOGEN [start-phase] [end-phase] [execution-mode]

You are returned to DCL level when the command has finished processing unless you specify SHUTDOWN or REBOOT as the end-phase parameter.

Chapter 7
Backup Utility

7.1 BACKUP Description

The Backup utility (BACKUP) helps you prevent data loss or corruption by creating copies of your files, directories, and disks. In case of a problem, for example, a disk drive failure, you can restore the backup copy and continue your work with minimal disruption.

When you save files with BACKUP, it writes the files to a special file called a save set. Save sets are written in a format that only BACKUP can interpret. (A save set stored on a Files--11 disk is a standard OpenVMS file, however, and can be copied, renamed, deleted, or backed up. A save set stored on magnetic tape should only be processed with the BACKUP command; do not use the DCL command COPY to copy a magnetic tape save set to disk.)

Use BACKUP to perform the following tasks:

  • Save disk files to a BACKUP save set.
  • Restore files to disk from a BACKUP save set.
  • Copy disk files to disk files.
  • Compare disk files created by BACKUP or files in a BACKUP save set with disk files.
  • List information about the files in a BACKUP save set.
  • Create and list journal files that record the results of BACKUP save operations.
  • Convert ODS-5 file names to ODS-2 file names.

For specific information about performing these tasks, see the HP OpenVMS System Manager's Manual.


Some layered products have their own special backup procedures. For more information, see the layered product documentation.

Also, when a symbolic link is encountered during a backup operation, the symbolic link itself is copied. This is true for all backup types --- physical, image, and file. For more information, see the Compaq C Run-Time Library Reference Manual for OpenVMS Systems.

Using BACKUP eliminates disk fragmentation. Fragmentation can occur as you create and extend files on a disk. If the file system cannot store files in contiguous blocks, it stores them in noncontiguous pieces. Eventually, the disk can become severely fragmented and system performance suffers. To eliminate fragmentation, perform an image backup of the disk and restore the backup copy. When you restore the image backup, BACKUP places the files on the disk contiguously.

Besides backing up your own files, directories, and disks, remember to back up your OpenVMS system disk. Depending on the policy at your site, individuals may be responsible for backing up their system disks, or an operator or system manager may perform the backup (as would likely be the case in a large, clustered computer system).

If you have access to the OpenVMS Alpha or Integrity servers CD-ROM, you can use a menu system supplied on the CD-ROM to back up your system disk.

For more information about standalone BACKUP and the menu-driven procedure, see the HP OpenVMS System Manager's Manual.

Types of backup operations are:

  • An image backup (also called a full backup) saves a copy of all the files on a disk (or volume) to a save set. The first backup that you do on a disk must be an image backup; you cannot perform an incremental backup first.
  • An image restore initializes the output disk and restores an entire volume.
  • An image copy operation initializes the output disk and copies an entire volume; the image backup is a logical duplicate of the contents of the disk.
  • An image compare operation compares the contents of entire volumes.


    Because an image copy or backup operation processes all files on the input volume, you cannot specify file-selection qualifiers for these operations. You can, however, restore files and directories selectively from an image save set.

    If the output volume of an image operation is a disk, BACKUP stores all files on the output volume contiguously, eliminating disk fragmentation and creating contiguous free blocks of disk space.
  • An incremental backup saves only those files that have been created or modified since the most recent backup that was performed using the /RECORD qualifier. (The /RECORD qualifier records the date and time that the files are backed up.)
  • An incremental restore operation restores an incremental save set. Specify the command qualifier /INCREMENTAL in an incremental restore operation.
  • A file operation processes individual files or directories.
  • A selective operation process files or volumes selectively, according to criteria such as version number, file type, UIC, date and time of creation, expiration date, or modification date.
    Perform selective save operations by using wildcard characters and input file-selection qualifiers (for example, /BACKUP, /BEFORE, /BY_OWNER (use instead of /OWNER_UIC), /CREATED, /EXCLUDE, /EXPIRED, /MODIFIED, and /SINCE).
  • A physical operation copies, saves, restores, or compares an entire volume in terms of logical blocks, ignoring any file structure.


    Beginning in Version 8.2, a restore of a physical backup no longer requires the output disk to have the same geometry (tracks, cylinders). The restore operation works as long as the output has the same or larger capacity.
The following sections describe the BACKUP command line format.

7.2 BACKUP Command Line Format

To perform BACKUP operations, enter the DCL command BACKUP in the following format:

BACKUP input-specifier output-specifier

BACKUP evaluates the input and output specifiers to determine which type of operation to perform. BACKUP also uses the input specifier to locate the input and directs output to the output specifier.

7.3 BACKUP Input and Output Specifiers

BACKUP can process several different types of input and output. Depending on the type of operation being executed, input and output specifiers can be standard OpenVMS file specifications, BACKUP save-set specifications, or device specifications. Device specifications can refer to disk or magnetic tape volumes.

You can specify any valid OpenVMS file specification as BACKUP input or output specifiers; however, BACKUP does not allow node names in BACKUP file specifications. You can use wildcard characters, and you can also list multiple file specifications as input to a single BACKUP operation.

A BACKUP save-set specification is the file specification of a BACKUP save set. When you use BACKUP to save files or volumes, BACKUP writes your files to a save set. You can specify the save set as input to other BACKUP operations. When specifying a save set, follow the rules for specifying a OpenVMS file. The OpenVMS User's Manual describes valid specifications for disk files; the HP OpenVMS System Manager's Manual explains the rules for specifying magnetic tape files. A save-set specification has no default file type, although you can use BCK or SAV.

The save-set name can be any valid OpenVMS file name and type. However, when you create a save set on magnetic tape, the save-set name has the following restrictions:

  • The entire save-set name cannot exceed 17 characters, including the period delimiter.
  • You cannot specify a version number.
  • You cannot specify a directory name.

Device specifications used as BACKUP input or output specifiers follow the conventions for specifying devices outlined in the OpenVMS User's Manual.

By default, BACKUP treats an input or output specifier referring to a Files--11 disk as a file specification. Therefore, to identify a save set on a Files--11 volume, you must include the /SAVE_SET qualifier with the specifier (see /SAVE_SET). BACKUP treats input and output specifiers referring to magnetic tape as save sets.


You cannot specify a save set for both the input and output specifier of a BACKUP command. For this reason, you cannot perform a BACKUP operation from one magnetic tape to another.

Table 7-1 shows input and output specifiers for each type of BACKUP operation.

Table 7-1 BACKUP Input and Output by Operation Type
Operation Format
Save BACKUP file-spec save-set-spec
Save (image) BACKUP/IMAGE device-spec save-set-spec
Save (physical to disk) BACKUP/PHYSICAL device-spec device-spec
Restore BACKUP save-set-spec file-spec
Restore (image) BACKUP/IMAGE save-set-spec device-spec
Restore (physical from disk) BACKUP/PHYSICAL save-set-spec device-spec
Restore (physical from tape) BACKUP/PHYSICAL save-set-spec device-spec
Copy BACKUP file-spec file-spec
Copy (image) BACKUP/IMAGE device-spec device-spec
Copy (physical to tape) BACKUP/PHYSICAL device-spec save-set-spec
Compare BACKUP/COMPARE file-spec file-spec
BACKUP/COMPARE save-set-spec file-spec
Compare (image) BACKUP/COMPARE/IMAGE save-set-spec device-spec
BACKUP/COMPARE/IMAGE device-spec device-spec
Compare (physical) BACKUP/COMPARE/PHYSICAL device-spec device-spec
BACKUP/COMPARE/PHYSICAL save-set-spec device-spec
List 1 BACKUP/LIST[=file-spec] save-set-spec
BACKUP/LIST[=file-spec] device-spec
Create Journal BACKUP/JOURNAL[=file-spec] file-spec save-set-spec
List Journal BACKUP/JOURNAL[=file-spec]/LIST[=file-spec]

1Can also be used with any other operation listed here.

7.3.1 Input and Output Specifier Element Lists

An element list is a list of arguments specified with a command or qualifier. The arguments, or elements, in the list are separated by commas. Element lists relating to input or output specifiers are allowed only in the following circumstances:

  • If an input specifier refers to a Files--11 disk, you can construct lists from standard OpenVMS file specifications, as follows:

    $ BACKUP
  • If an input specifier or an output specifier refers to a BACKUP save set on magnetic tape or sequential disk, you can specify more than one device name to be used in the operation. This allows you to process multivolume save sets efficiently by specifying the order in which devices will be used. The first volume is processed until it is full. The second (or subsequent) volume is processed while the media in the first (or previous) volume is being changed. However, the save-set name must appear with the first element in the list and must not appear in subsequent elements in the list.
    In the following example, BACKUP first saves data to a tape in drive MSA0, then to a tape in drive MSA1. When the tape in drive MSA1 is full, BACKUP saves data to a fresh tape in MSA0.

    $ BACKUP 
    _From: DUA0:[DATA]*.*,DUA0:[PROGRAMS]*.*
  • If you are performing an image operation on a volume set, you can specify element lists in the input and output specifiers. In the following example, BACKUP first restores the save set TEST.SAV from the tape in drive MSA0, and then continues to restore the save set from the tape in drive MSA1. BACKUP first restores this save set to DUA0. When DUA0 is full, BACKUP continues the restore operation to DUA1.

    _From: MSA0:TEST.SAV,MSA1:
    _To: DUA0:[DATA...],DUA1:

7.3.2 Using Wildcard Characters with BACKUP

BACKUP allows you to use wildcard characters in file specifications to represent directories, file names, file types, and version numbers. Omitted file names, file types, or version numbers are assumed to be the asterisk wildcard character (*). For instance, if you omit the version number, BACKUP processes all versions. (For introductory information about wildcard characters, see the OpenVMS User's Manual.)

You can use any valid DCL wildcard character with input specifiers that are Files--11 media or with the /SELECT and /EXCLUDE qualifiers. Note, however, that the symbols denoting the latest versions of files (;) and relative versions of files (;-n) are processed as the asterisk wildcard character (;*) when they are used with the /EXCLUDE and /SELECT qualifiers.

You cannot use wildcard characters in BACKUP save-set specifications unless the save sets are input specifiers on tape.

Using Wildcard Characters to Represent Directories

The following table lists the types of directory wildcards allowed for output specifiers that are Files--11 media:

Directory Wildcard Result
omitted If a directory name is omitted, BACKUP restores file to the current default directory [].
[*...] BACKUP restores files to the directory from which they were saved.
[directory] BACKUP restores files to the named directory.
[directory...] The wildcard characters used in the specification of the input files determine the directory to which BACKUP restores the files.


If you specify directory wildcard characters incorrectly and your directories contain many levels of subdirectories, you risk losing the lower level subdirectories in BACKUP operations because OpenVMS directory trees can have only 8 levels with ODS-2 files. ODS-5 files, however, do not have this 8-level restriction.

The following example uses the directory wildcard format [directory...] for both the input and the output specifiers:


In this example, BACKUP creates a directory named [JOE.RECEIVED] (if it does not already exist) as well as subdirectories that correspond to the subdirectories of [OSCAR]. BACKUP copies all files from the directory [OSCAR] and its subdirectories to [JOE.RECEIVED] and its subdirectories. If [OSCAR] has 8 levels of directories, however, and files in it are ODS-2, BACKUP is unable to create a corresponding 9-level subdirectory to [JOE.RECEIVED]; the 8-level subdirectory to [OSCAR] is not copied. (This restriction does not apply to ODS-5 files.)

If you use the asterisk wildcard character (*) to represent subdirectories in the input specifier of a copy operation, BACKUP creates subdirectories to the directory specified in the output specifier that correspond to the subdirectories in the input specifier. BACKUP then copies all files from the lowest level subdirectory in the input specifier to the lowest level subdirectory in the output specifier. In the following example, the asterisk represents subdirectories named MONDAY and TUESDAY:


In this example, BACKUP creates a subdirectory named [JAMES.MONDAY.TUESDAY.WEDNESDAY]. In doing so, BACKUP:

  1. Copies the file MONDAY.DIR to [JAMES]
  2. Copies the file TUESDAY.DIR to [JAMES.MONDAY], and

In a restore operation, the input specifier defaults to [*...] if the input save-set qualifier /SELECT is not used; this is important if you use the form [directory...] in the output specifier. The function of the wildcard [*...] is to carry over the entire directory name from the first level on and to place it before the ellipsis in the output specifier. Thus, if the save set in the following example contains the directory tree [SAVE...], the restored directory tree will be [WORK.SAVE...]:


Note that the result will be the same, even if your output specifier has the same name as the directory in the input specifier, as shown in the following example:


The preceding command restores the directory tree [SAVE...] to a directory tree named [SAVE.SAVE...].

The following command restores the directory tree [SAVE...] to a directory tree named [WORK...]:


There are two ways to retain the original directory name when you restore files. You must either use the form [*...] for the output specifier, or you must specify the input save-set qualifier /SELECT. The following example uses the form [*...] in the output specifier to restore the directory tree [SAVE...] in save set SAVE.BCK to the directory tree [SAVE...]:


The input save-set qualifier /SELECT causes only the ellipsis portion of the selected file specification to be carried over to the directory tree named in the output specifier [directory...]. The following command restores [SAVE...] to [SAVE...]:

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