HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
HP OpenVMS License Management Utility Manual
2.2 Types of Licenses
Different types of software product licenses enable you to allow access to each product in ways that range from access for a specific user on a specific system to general access for all users on all nodes within an OpenVMS Cluster. Table 2-3 describes the licenses that LMF supports on VAX and Alpha systems.
The license descriptions that follow provide information to help you
understand and manage the product authorization process on VAX or Alpha
computers using LMF, rather than to help you order software licenses.
HP provides licenses in many ways that may not always correspond to the
examples in this manual. Check with your HP support representative for
ordering information, and check the terms and conditions of your
license contracts for restrictions.
An Availability License makes a product available to all the users of a system. LMF can load a product when there are sufficient license units available in the LMF to satisfy the unit requirements of all the nodes in the cluster which have already loaded the product and enough units remaining available to satisfy the unit requirements of the requesting node. To authorize full availability on a system, LMF checks the Availability Table Code on the registered license and interrogates the LURT to determine the rating of the system. If the registered license provides enough license units, LMF loads the license, making the product available to all users on the named system.
For example, the PAK for the fictional layered product ALLSUM provides 1000 license units (Number of Units: 1000) and refers to LURT F, (Availability Table Code: F). When you register and load the license, LMF selects LURT F and checks whether the size of the license is at least as big as the number of license units required by the current system. If so, LMF authorizes full availability to ALLSUM on the current system.
In addition to authorizing use on a system, LMF allocates the required number of units to the system that loads the license. If a 1000-unit Availability License is registered in a common OpenVMS Cluster environment License Database, LMF can allocate a total of 1000 license units among several nodes in the cluster. For example, LMF can allocate the 1000 units to one node that requires 500 units, one that requires 300, and a third that needs 200 license units. This is known as license sharing.
With an Availability License, LMF allocates license units to a system when you load a license. LMF returns the license units either when you use the LICENSE UNLOAD command or when the system is shut down.
18.104.22.168 Providing Sufficient License Units
The license you register in the License Database should provide enough license units to satisfy the requirements specified in the LURT. Before you purchase a license, work with your software representative to assess your software and hardware requirements to ensure that you obtain a license of the correct size.
For standalone systems (including multiprocessors), HP offers licenses that exactly match the license requirements of a system. That is, there is a license size that matches each LURT entry.
Sometimes, users with multiple standalone systems cannot match their licenses to meet every circumstance. For example, you may manage two standalone systems: VAXBIG, which requires a 700-unit license, and VAXMID, which requires a 400-unit license. If you have one 700-unit license, you can load it on either system (but not both). If you have one 400-unit license, you can load it only on VAXMID. You can, however, still register the smaller license in the License Database of VAXBIG.
22.214.171.124 Providing More License Units
You may need to provide more license units than are currently registered in the License Database for a product. For example, you cannot load a 400-unit license on a system that requires 700 units. If you need more license units than are currently available, contact your software representative, who may recommend one of the following:
126.96.36.199 Providing Availability in an OpenVMS Cluster Environment
In an OpenVMS Cluster environment, you must consider all of the nodes that can load a product. To provide full availability for a product in an OpenVMS cluster environment with a common License Database, you must register licenses with a total number of license units at least as large as the total license unit requirements of all the nodes. For example, if the cluster consists of three VAX 8800 systems, each of which requires 1200 license units to run a specific product, you must register at least 3600 license units (1200 times 3) to provide full product availability across the cluster environment. Each node in the cluster will load 3600 units.
Why does each node in a cluster load all 3600 license units if it only uses 1200?
Think of the 3600 license units as a cluster-wide pool made up of the requirements of each of the nodes. Loading a license is like joining the pool: each node must be aware of the total size of the pool, the existing split, and its own requirements.
Assume that you have a three-node cluster, ALPHABET. ALPHABET consists of the nodes A, B, and C, which boot in that order whenever the cluster is rebooted. Also assume that ALPHABET has an Availability PAK and a valid LDB configured with 3600 units available. When node A boots, it sees 3600 license units. No other nodes are online, so it loads 3600 units and allocates 1200 of the units for itself.
Node B boots up and sees 3600 units registered and that A is using 1200 of the units. The remaining 2400 units is larger than the 1200 the node requires. Node B loads 3600 units and allocates 1200 for itself.
Node C boots up and sees 3600 license units registered. Nodes A and B have each allocated 1200 units, leaving a remainder of 1200, which is enough for Node C. Node C loads 3600 units and allocates 1200 for itself.
If you do not need product availability clusterwide, you can register licenses with total license units to authorize use by individual nodes. For example, in a cluster with three nodes each requiring 1200 license units, a 1200-unit license allows any one node to run the product, and a 2400-unit license allows any two cluster nodes to run the product concurrently. You can also use the LICENSE MODIFY command to allow or deny access to specific cluster nodes (see Section 5.6.2).
For example, suppose that on the ALPHABET cluster, you only want nodes A and C to use the product. You only need 2400 license units. The way to insure that only A and C can use the product is to place an INCLUDE or EXCLUDE list on all PAKs for that product.
To do this, issue the LICENSE MODIFY /INCLUDE command:
You could also issue the LICENSE MODIFY /EXCLUDE command:
Without the LICENSE MODIFY /INCLUDE or /EXCLUDE command, the first node to boot would find and load 2400 license units. The second node would find 2400 license units, note that another node is already using 1200 units and that the remainder, 1200 units, is sufficient to satisfy its requirements and load the entire 2400 units. The third node would also try to load the product, realize all the license units are already in use and fail.
Note that you cannot always manage licenses as previously described.
For example, some licenses restrict a product to a certain system type,
and other licenses with the NO_SHARE option cannot share license units.
As always, check the terms and conditions of your license contract.
If you change the configuration of an OpenVMS Cluster by adding a node, or upgrading an existing node to a more powerful one, you may need to increase the number of available license units. You can provide more license units in the following ways:
Your software representative can help you choose the option that fits
An Activity License defines the number of concurrent uses allowed for a product at any one time. Each product defines an activity as either an interactive user, a running process, volume shadowing, or a job. For example, when you register a 4-Activity License, LMF authorizes four concurrent uses of the product. Each time an activity invokes the product, LMF checks whether there are sufficent license units available to use the product on the current system, and if so, allocates the license units to that activity, reducing the number available to additional activities. When all license units are allocated, no new activity can invoke the product until an activity terminates use of the product (thereby deallocating license units).
As with an Availability License, an Activity License authorizes use through license units and LURTs. A product may require a certain number of license units per activity, regardless of the hardware system. For example, a 4-Activity License for a product that requires 100 license units per activity has a size of 400 license units, and allows up to four activities, whether on a MicroVAX system or a VAX 8800 system. The license unit requirement of the product is designated on the PAK as Activity Table Code: Constant=100 .
Other products require a certain number of license units per activity on a particular system. A 4-Activity License for a product that requires 100 license units per activity on a VAX 8800 system requires 400 license units. The same 100-unit license provides five concurrent uses on a system that requires only 75 units per activity (of that product).
188.8.131.52 Providing Enough License Units
As with Availability Licenses, you should try to match system, product, and license to your user requirements. Software vendors offer a variety of licenses that can match the license requirements of your users and your system. Before you obtain a product license, consult your software representative to define your software and hardware requirements to ensure that you obtain a license of the correct size.
The license you register in the License Database should provide enough license units to allow a predetermined number of activities access to the product. For example, if a software product requires 25 license units per activity on your system and PAKs come in 4-activity increments, the license you register should provide at least 100 units. Note that a 120-unit license provides no more use than a 100-unit license on such a system.
Different systems can have different license unit requirements per activity. Therefore, the number of users authorized by a license varies according to the system. For example, you may manage the following standalone systems:
If you obtain a 125-unit Activity License for VAXBIG, you can temporarily move that license (with the LICENSE COPY command) to VAXMID when you shut down VAXBIG for maintenance. The 125-unit license, which allows 5 concurrent activities on VAXBIG, provides 6 concurrent activites on VAXMID. Note that you can also move an 80-unit (4-Activity) license originally intended for VAXMID to VAXBIG. However, on VAXBIG, the license provides access to only 3 activities.
As with Availability Licenses, you can register a license in the
License Database even if that license cannot be successfully loaded.
For example, if you register a 40-unit license that provides product
access to two activities on a MicroVAX A system, the same license does
not allow access to any activities on a system that requires 50 units
You may need to provide more license units than are currently registered in the License Database for a product. Each time a user is denied access to a product because of insufficient license units, LMF produces the following message:
184.108.40.206 Sharing License Units in an OpenVMS Cluster Environment
All cluster activities can access a product that has an Activity License registered in the common License Database. If your PAK specifies a constant number of license units per activity regardless of the system size, the cluster always provides access to the same number of activities. A 4-Activity License provides access to 4 activities whether the cluster has 1 node or 12 nodes, 1 MicroVAX system or 12 VAX 9000 systems.
In other cases, an Activity License may not specify a constant number of license units per activity on all nodes. Because the Activity License unit requirement can be different on each node in the cluster, the number of available activities depends on the system class of nodes involved.
For example, a particular Activity License might provide access to any 12 activities for a product on an OpenVMS Cluster with three VAX 8200 systems. If you add a node to the cluster that has a higher license unit requirement (than a VAX 8200), the number of concurrent uses allowed can decrease, because LMF allocates more license units per activity of the product on the additional node. You can modify the Activity License (using the LICENSE MODIFY command) to include or exclude specific nodes.
Note also that when the system starts up, LMF, by default, loads any
licenses that do not have include or exclude lists. To control license
loading, limit access with a LICENSE MODIFY/EXCLUDE or LICENSE
MODIFY/INCLUDE command for each license that can be combined when
licenses are loaded.
A Personal Use License designates the names of specific users for unlimited use of a product. Before you load the license, you specify the users allowed access. LMF adds these users to a reservation list, which is checked before granting access to each user who tries to invoke the product. A PAK for a Personal Use License specifies RESERVE_UNITS in the Key Options field. This license shares some characteristics with both the Availability and Activity Licenses.
Although a personal use PAK includes an Activity Table Code, it does not limit access to concurrent use. While an Availability License authorizes product use by system, a Personal Use License authorizes product use by user name. LMF processes a list of authorized users when the license is loaded. After the license is loaded, any user on the list can access the product.
To calculate the allowed number of names on the reservation list, LMF divides the number of license units by the constant value listed in the Activity Table Code field of the PAK. If you register a 400-unit Personal Use License with a constant value of 100, LMF authorizes four specifically named users to access the product. If more than four names are associated with the license, LMF rejects extra names from the reservation list and denies access when those users attempt to access the product.
Personal Use Licenses are subject to combination rules that allow long lists of authorized users. See Section 2.3 for information about combining Personal Use Licenses.
Each Personal Use License must have an associated reservation list that
specifies the name of each user with authorized access to the product.
You cannot load a Personal Use License that does not have an associated
reservation list with at least one user name. See Section 5.6.3 for
information about controlling access to licenses with reservation lists
using the LICENSE MODIFY command.
The User License shares some characteristics with the Activity and Personal Use Licenses, as follows:
As specified in the terms of your license, users can be people, disks,
queues, applications, and others.
A Group License authorizes access to a group of software products --- usually related --- that are licensed as one product. This enables you to license a group of products by registering only one PAK. A Group License can be any type of license: Availability, Activity, Personal Use, or User License.
All LICENSE commands use the group name for the product-name parameter instead of the individual product names. For example, a Software Group called COMPILER_1 might include HP Fortran, HP Pascal, and HP COBOL. You register the Group License as COMPILER_1 with one PAK and enter all LICENSE commands using COMPILER_1 as well.
Group PAKs do not look different from single product PAKs. For
information about the products licensed by a group PAK, see the
Software Product Description (SPD) for the group product.
License combination allows LMF to create large licenses by adding together the license units of multiple licenses. For example, two 50-unit Availability Licenses become equal to one 100-unit Availability License. Ten 100-unit Personal Use Licenses become equal to one 1000-unit Personal Use License.
License combination and loading are controlled by both the terms of your PAK and options you set with the LICENSE MODIFY/COMBINE and LICENSE MODIFY/NOCOMBINE commands.