SSL_shutdown — shut down a TLS/SSL connection
SSL_shutdown() shuts down an active TLS/SSL connection. It
sends the "close notify" shutdown alert to the peer.
SSL_shutdown() tries to send the "close notify" shutdown alert
to the peer. Whether the operation succeeds or not, the SSL_SENT_SHUTDOWN
flag is set and a currently open session is considered closed and
good and will be kept in the session cache for further reuse.
The shutdown procedure consists of 2 steps: the sending of
the "close notify" shutdown alert and the reception of the peer's
"close notify" shutdown alert. According to the TLS standard, it
is acceptable for an application to only send its shutdown alert
and then close the underlying connection without waiting for the
peer's response (this way resources can be saved, as the process
can already terminate or serve another connection). When the underlying
connection shall be used for more communications, the complete shutdown
procedure (bidirectional "close notify" alerts) must be performed,
so that the peers stay synchronized.
SSL_shutdown() supports both uni- and bidirectional shutdown
by its 2 step behaviour.
When the application is the first
party to send the "close notify"
alert, SSL_shutdown() will only send the alert and the set
the SSL_SENT_SHUTDOWN flag (so that the session is considered good
and will be kept in cache). SSL_shutdown() will then return with
0. If a unidirectional shutdown is enough (the underlying connection
shall be closed anyway), this first call to SSL_shutdown() is sufficient.
In order to complete the bidirectional shutdown handshake, SSL_shutdown()
must be called again. The second call will make SSL_shutdown() wait
for the peer's "close notify" shutdown alert. On success, the second
call to SSL_shutdown() will return with 1.
If the peer already sent the "close notify" alert
and it was already processed implicitly inside another function
the SSL_RECEIVED_SHUTDOWN flag is set. SSL_shutdown() will send
the "close notify" alert, set the SSL_SENT_SHUTDOWN flag and will
immediately return with 1. Whether SSL_RECEIVED_SHUTDOWN is already
set can be checked using the SSL_get_shutdown() (see also SSL_set_shutdown(3) call.
It is therefore recommended, to check the return value of
SSL_shutdown() and call SSL_shutdown() again, if the bidirectional
shutdown is not yet complete (return value of the first call is
0). As the shutdown is not specially handled in the SSLv2 protocol,
SSL_shutdown() will succeed on the first call.
The behaviour of SSL_shutdown() additionally depends on the
If the underlying BIO is blocking, SSL_shutdown() will only
return once the handshake step has been finished or an error occurred.
If the underlying BIO is non-blocking, SSL_shutdown() will
also return when the underlying BIO could not satisfy the needs
of SSL_shutdown() to continue the handshake. In this case a call
to SSL_get_error() with the return value of SSL_shutdown() will
yield SSL_ERROR_WANT_READ or SSL_ERROR_WANT_WRITE . The calling
process then must repeat the call after taking appropriate action
to satisfy the needs of SSL_shutdown(). The action depends on the
underlying BIO. When using a non-blocking socket, nothing is to be
done, but select() can be used to check for the required condition.
When using a buffering BIO, like a BIO pair, data must be written
into or retrieved out of the BIO before being able to continue.
SSL_shutdown() can be modified to only set the connection
to "shutdown" state but not actually send the "close notify" alert
messages, see SSL_CTX_set_quiet_shutdown(3). When "quiet shutdown" is
enabled, SSL_shutdown() will always succeed and return 1.
The following return values can occur:
The shutdown was successfully completed. The "close notify"
alert was sent and the peer's "close notify" alert was received.
The shutdown is not yet finished. Call SSL_shutdown() for
a second time, if a bidirectional shutdown shall be performed. The
output of SSL_get_error(3) may be misleading, as an
erroneous SSL_ERROR_SYSCALL may be flagged even though no error
The shutdown was not successful because a fatal error occurred
either at the protocol level or a connection failure occurred. It
can also occur if action is need to continue the operation for non-blocking
BIOs. Call SSL_get_error(3) with the return value ret
to find out the reason.
SSL_get_error(3), SSL_connect(3), SSL_accept(3), SSL_set_shutdown(3), SSL_CTX_set_quiet_shutdown(3), SSL_clear(3), SSL_free(3), ssl(3), bio(3)