HP OpenVMS Version 8.3 New Features and
3.21.2 Managing VLAN on Your System
Before creating a VLAN device, make sure that the hosting VLAN-capable
physical LAN device is connected to a VLAN-capable switch. Also make
sure that the selected switch port is configured to handle VLAN-tagged
The following sections contain additional VLAN management details.
184.108.40.206 Probing a Switch Port
To make it easier to manage VLAN devices, OpenVMS LAN includes limited
support for IEEE 802.1Q management functions. A LANCP qualifier helps
you probe a switch port and list VLAN configuration information. The
new command is the following:
LANCP> SHOW DEVICE PHYSICAL-LAN-DEVICE/VLAN
After you enter the command, LANCP listens for IEEE 802.1Q GVRP
(Generic Attribute Registration Protocol) VLAN Registration Protocol
packets and displays the following:
- The VLAN tags that have been configured on the switch port
- The VLAN devices that have been configured on the physical LAN
LANCP> SHOW DEVICE LLB /VLAN
Listening for VLAN configuration on LLBO ......
VLAN tag 190 configured as VLB
VLAN tag 206 configured as VLJ
VLAN tag 207 not configured
This command shows VLAN information only if GVRP capability is enabled
on the switch port.
220.127.116.11 Creating a VLAN Device
To create a VLAN device, enter a LANCP command using the following
LANCP> SET DEVICE VLc/VLAN_DEVICE=PHYSICAL-LAN-DEVICE/
- VLc is the name of the virtual LAN device (c is
the controller letter a - z).
- PHYSICAL-LAN-DEVICE is the LN device that will host the VLAN.
- value is the IEEE 802.1Q tag. (The valid range is 1 -
LANCP> SET DEVICE VLA/VLAN=EIB/TAG=42
This command fails if the physical LAN device does not exist, if the
physical LAN device is not VLAN-capable, or if the VLAN tag is invalid.
Associating a Text Description with a LAN Device
Also new in this version of OpenVMS, you can associate a text
description with a LAN device. You do this by entering a LANCP SET or
DEFINE DEVICE command with the qualifier
/DESCRIPTION=<quoted-string> to provide the additional context.
For example, to identify a VLAN device as part of the "Finance
VLAN", enter the following command:
LANCP> SET DEVICE VLA/DESCRIPTION="Finance VLAN"
18.104.22.168 Deactivating a Virtual LAN Device
The deactivation functionality has not yet been completed at the time
of Field Test. Watch for updates during Field Test for this capability.
To deactivate a VLAN device, use the following command format:
LANCP> SET DEVICE VLc/NOVLAN
This command fails if the device is in use, that is, if other
applications are still using the device.
22.214.171.124 Displaying VLAN Device Information
To display information about the VLAN device, enter the LANCP commands
SHOW DEVICE and SHOW CONFIGURATION. For example:
LANCP> SHOW DEVICE VLK/CHARACTERISTICS
Device Characteristics VLKO:
"206" VLAN 802.1Q tag
"1" VLAN device flags
"Procurve 2315 P15" VLAN description
Link Up Link state
Device Parent Medium/User Version Link Speed Duplex Size MAC Address Current Address Type
------ ------ ----------- ------- ---- ----- ------ ---- ----------------- ----------------- ----
EWA0 Ethernet X-51 Up 1000 Full 1500 00-D0-59-61-72-F3 AA-00-04-00-1B-4D UTP DEGXA-TA
EWB0 Ethernet X-51 Up 100 Full 1500 00-D0-59-61-72-D8 00-D0-59-61-72-D8 UTP DEGXA-TA
EWC0 Ethernet X-59 Up 1000 Full 1500 00-60-CF-21-71-9C AA-00-00-21-71-9C UTP DEGPA-TA
EWD0 Ethernet X-59 Up 1000 Full 1500 00-60-CF-20-9A-C6 00-60-CF-20-9A-C6 UTP DEGPA-TA
EIA0 Ethernet X-16 Up 1000 Full 1500 00-12-79-9E-20-AE AA-00-04-00-1B-4D UTP AB352A
EIB0 Ethernet X-16 Up 1000 Full 1500 00-12-79-9E-20-AF 00-12-79-9E-20-AF UTP AB352A
LLB0 Ethernet X-19 Up 1000 Full 1500 AA-00-00-21-71-9C AA-00-00-21-71-9C DEGPA-TA
VLB0 Ethernet X-BA1 Up 1000 Full 1500 AA-00-00-21-71-9C AA-00-00-21-71-9C LLB
VLC0 Ethernet X-BA1 Up 1000 Full 1500 00-12-79-9E-20-AF 00-12-79-9E-20-AF UTP EIB
VLD0 Ethernet X-BA1 Down 100 Full 1500 00-00-00-00-00-00 00-00-00-00-00-00
VLJ0 Ethernet X-BA1 Up 1000 Full 1500 AA-00-00-21-71-9C AA-00-00-21-71-9C LLB
VLK0 Ethernet X-BA1 Up 1000 Full 1500 00-12-79-9E-20-AE AA-00-04-00-1B-4D UTP EIA
3.21.3 VLAN Troubleshooting
Most VLAN problems are related to configuration. A list of things to
check when you are troubleshooting a VLAN problem:
- To OpenVMS, not all LAN devices are VLAN-capable. If you attempt to
create a VLAN device on a non-VLAN-capable device, LANCP displays an
To verify that a LAN device is VLAN-capable, use SDA
to check device characteristics by entering the following commands:
SDA> SHOW LAN/DEVICE=physical-device-name
SDA> LAN DEVICE/DEVICE=physical-device-name
VLAN bit 4 should be set in the device characteristics, which the
text string "VLAN" indicates.
- Verify that VLAN capability is enabled on the switch port that is
connected to your LAN device and that the correct VLAN tag is
configured. If GVRP is enabled on the switch, you can verify that the
VLAN tag is enabled by entering the following LANCP command:
LANCP> SHOW DEVICE physical-device-name/VLAN
This command displays the VLAN tags configured on the switch port.
Next, verify that the tag displayed is the one that was used to create
the VLAN device.
- Verify that the VLAN device was configured correctly. Enter the
following command to see the characteristics and status maintained by
the VLAN driver:
LANCP> SHOW DEVICE vlan-device-name/INTERNAL_COUNTERS
LANCP> SHOW DEVICE VLC/INTERNAL_COUNTERS
Device Internal Counters VLCO:
--- Internal Driver Counters ---
" EIB" Device name
00000001 Device Flag 1 <online>
190 VLAN Tag ID
86514000 Physical LSB
11834 Failure status
FFFFFFFF 805E28CC Failure PC
Check the following:
- The device name and tag should be the same as those specified when
you created the VLAN device.
- Verify that the "online" bit is set on the Device Flag 1
field; if not, the failure status might provide more information.
- The physical LSB field is the address of the LAN physical device
LSB (LAN Station Block) structure. To look at the characteristics and
status of this device, enter the following commands:
SDA> LAN DEVICE/ADDRESS=physical LSB address
For more information about OpenVMS VLAN support, see the HP OpenVMS System Management Utilities Reference Manual.
3.22 Volume Shadowing for OpenVMS
The following new features for HP Volume Shadowing for OpenVMS are
available in OpenVMS Version 8.3:
- Automatic bitmap creation on volume processing
- New SET SHADOW qualifier, /RESET
3.22.1 Automatic Bitmap Creation on Volume Processing
Automatic bitmap creation on volume processing means that an existing
HBMM bitmap is made available to function as a minicopy bitmap when
connectivity to one or more shadow set members is lost and is not
restored during the shadow member timeout period.
When such connectivity is lost, the shadow set is paused for volume
processing---that is, writes and reads are temporarily suspended until
connectivity is restored or the timeout period (established by the
value of SHADOW_MBR_TMO) expires, whichever comes first.
If connectivity is not restored by the end of the timeout period, the
member or members are expelled from the shadow set, read and write I/O
to the remaining member or members resumes, and the bitmap keeps track
of the writes. The bitmap, whose name has changed from HBMMx
to rrsex, functions as a minicopy bitmap for the member or
members that were expelled.
While one or two members are expelled and after all members are
restored to membership in the shadow set, the HBMM bitmap functionality
remains in effect. The HBMM bitmap functionality is useful in the case
of an expelled member only when the shadow set has three members and
one member is expelled.
When connectivity is restored to one of the expelled shadow set
members, you can mount it back into the shadow set. If the expelled
member's metadata matches a bitmap that exists, it is used for a
minicopy operation to restore that member to the shadow set. If a
second shadow set member was removed at the same time, that member can
also use that bitmap. After the members are restored to the shadow set,
the name of the bitmap reverts to its HBMM bitmap name.
The reasons to minimize the time when one or more members are expelled
from a shadow set are:
- During a period of reduced membership of the shadow set, data
availability is at risk.
- If a shadow set member is expelled, reads and writes to the
remaining members continue. The more writes that take place before the
expelled member or members are returned, the longer it takes to restore
the member or members to the shadow set. This is especially significant
in a disaster tolerant (DT) configuration.
Before the introduction of automatic bitmap creation on volume
processing, returning expelled members to a shadow set, after
connectivity was restored, was a lengthy process. The expelled members
could be returned only by undergoing a full copy. The availability of a
bitmap enables the use of a minicopy operation, which takes
considerably less time than a full copy operation.
To enable automatic bitmap creation on volume processing, you need to
establish an HBMM policy for the shadow sets, and include the new
MULTIUSE keyword in the policy. For more information, refer to the HBMM
chapter in the HP OpenVMS Version 8.2 New Features and Documentation Overview manual.
3.22.2 New SET SHADOW /RESET Qualifier
The /RESET qualifier to the SET SHADOW command is introduced in this
release. SET SHADOW/RESET=COUNTERS resets the shadowing-specific
counters that are maintained for each shadow set.
The counters that are reset to 0 are:
HBMM Reset Count
SCP Merge Repair Cnt
APP Merge Repair Cnt
You can display the current settings of these counters using the SHOW
The HBMM Reset Count refers to how many times the RESET_THRESHOLD value
was met. The RESET_THRESHOLD is the setting which determines how
frequently a bitmap is cleared. With the ability to clear the HBMM
Reset Count, system managers can better gauge the rate of threshold
For a complete description of SET SHADOW/RESET, refer to the
HP OpenVMS DCL Dictionary: N--Z and DCL Help.
Mastering Optical Media on OpenVMS
This chapter describes the creation (or mastering) of CD or DVD media
The process of mastering CD or DVD media includes the following tasks:
- Creating a disk volume structure in a staging area
- Populating that structure with the required files
- Copying the master onto the target optical media
On OpenVMS, you must use a logical disk (LD) device as the staging area
and DCL commands such as INITIALIZE, MOUNT, COPY, and BACKUP to
generate and populate the disk volume in the staging area. You can then
copy the contents of the disk volume by using the COPY/RECORDABLE_MEDIA
4.1 LD, CD, and DVD Device Concepts
The following sections discuss concepts that pertain to mastering
optical media on OpenVMS.
4.1.1 Logical Disk Devices
A logical disk (LD) device provides a mechanism for staging the master
copy of the data to be written to the optical media. You can create the
source for the recording operation using an LD disk device and then
enter the COPY/RECORDABLE_MEDIA command to transfer the master onto the
You use the LD utility to create and manage LD disk devices. You can
then initialize, mount, and access these LD disk devices using standard
OpenVMS DCL commands.
For more information about LD disk devices, see the HP OpenVMS System Manager's Manual.
4.1.2 CD and DVD Devices
You can use various recording formats with optical media devices. In
general, OpenVMS can read formats that correspond to the target device
OpenVMS can record the following four media formats:
Compact Disc Recordable
Compact Disc Rewritable
Digital Versatile Disc Recordable
Digital Versatile Disc Rewritable
The particular characteristics and capabilities of the target CD and
DVD devices are specific to the system, the recording device, and the
recording media. For example, the local hardware and software
configuration can further restrict the maximum permissible CD recording
speed to a value less than the speed supported by the CD recording
device. You might attempt to record a CD from an OpenVMS system that
does not have the I/O bandwidth you need to keep the data cache of the
target CD device from underflowing. However, such attempts can result
in recording errors and failures, and can waste recording media.
Recording devices can support a variety of recording formats and media.
Conversely, OpenVMS or a particular device might not support a
particular recording format. For the currently supported device
hardware and their associated platform configurations, see the
following Web site:
Find your particular I64 or Alpha platform, and then look for the
support matrix for that platform.
4.2 General Steps for Mastering Data Disks
The steps for mastering (sometimes called recording or burning) optical
media are the following:
- Start to create an OpenVMS logical disk (LD) by entering the
LD$STARTUP requires the TMPMBX, NETMBX, and SYSLCK privileges. The
COPY/RECORDABLE_MEDIA command, used later in these steps, is installed
with the necessary privileges.
Enter this command only once each time the OpenVMS system is
booted. To have the system perform the command for you, include the
command in your site-specific SYS$MANAGER:SYSTARTUP_VMS.COM system
startup procedure. In this way, the command executes each time the
OpenVMS system is bootstrapped.
- Create a logical disk (LD) to act as the staging area for your
media master. This LD disk device appears and operates like a standard
physical disk device but also provides flexibility because it can be
easily sized or resized. In addition, you can create or delete the
device as needed.
The LD driver, which enables you to connect to
and manage an LD disk device, uses a back-up storage file that allows
the contents of the LD disk device to be preserved over a reboot. The
capacity of the LD disk device---and the corresponding size of the
back-up file---must be equal to or larger than the size of the files
and the volume structure data to be stored. The capacity of the LD disk
device must also be equal to or smaller than the capacity of the target
optical media. The contents of the master must fit on the target media.
Approximate maximum capacities are usually the following:
You can create sizes up to the maximum for the target media.
Because optical media uses a sector size of 4 blocks (2048 bytes), you
must always create and use an LD disk device with a capacity that is a
multiple of 4 blocks. HP recommends that you use a multiple of 16
- To create your LD master, first create an LD backing storage file
for the master. Use a command similar to the following:
$ LD CREATE /size=9180416 filespec.ISO
You need to create this LD storage file only once.
- Connect the LD storage file to an LD logical disk. Use a command
similar to the following:
$ LD CONNECT filespec.ISO LDA1:
You need to reconnect the LD disk device once each time the OpenVMS
system bootstraps. You can include the LD CONNECT command in the
SYSTARTUP_VMS.COM site-specific system startup and have the system
execute the command for you each time the system bootstraps.
- Prepare the master for use.
Consider erasing the LD master
completely before proceeding. This action prevents you from
unintentionally disclosing confidential information about your local
system. You can erase the disk master in various ways, including using
the DCL command INITIALIZE/ERASE if you are creating an ODS-2 or ODS-5
If you choose to use the OpenVMS ODS-2 or ODS-5
volume structure for your target media, use the DCL command INITIALIZE
to create the volume structures. Then use the standard MOUNT command to
make the master disk volume accessible to other OpenVMS commands:
Use commands similar to the following:
$ INITIALIZE LDA1: volume-label -
/SYSTEM [/ERASE] [/...] -
[/CLUSTER=n] [/STRUCTURE=n] [/...]
$ MOUNT LDA1: volume-label
- Once the volume structure is available, you can copy the data onto
The data to be copied onto the LD master can include
data files, installation kits, executable images, tools, or other
files. As with a standard physical disk formatted as an ODS-2 or ODS-5
volume, you can use the BACKUP, COPY, CREATE/DIRECTORY, and other
standard DCL commands and procedures to create the contents of the LD
If you plan to use ODS-2 or ODS-5 volume structures, avoid
placing OpenVMS security identifiers or ACLs on the master. These are
system specific and can unexpectedly allow or deny access when you
mount or access the recorded media on other OpenVMS systems.
- After copying your selected contents onto the LD disk device
containing the master, dismount the device using a command similar to
- Record the contents of the LD master onto the optical media.
First place the appropriate blank media in the optical media disk
drive. Then enter a command similar to the following:
$ COPY/RECORDABLE_MEDIA LDA1: DQA0: -
This command copies the contents of the LDA1: master to the target
In this example, note the following:
- The target device is assumed to be DQA0: and is assumed to have
rewritable media loaded. The particular target device name can vary
according to your local hardware configuration.
- The /FORMAT qualifier is applicable only with rewritable media; it
causes the rewritable media to be erased and to be prepared for
- Specifying the /SPEED qualifier reduces the recording speed from
the default speed calculation; this might be necessary if your
attempted CD or DVD recordings fail with buffer underrun or data
starvation errors, or (when recording CD formats) if you use underrated
CD media (that is, CD media rated for speeds less than those of your CD
You can use /SPEED to select the CD or DVD
recording speed up to the I/O performance of the local OpenVMS system.
Use of this qualifier is limited to the maximum recording speed ratings
for the target drive and for the target recording media.
that /SPEED is more a go-slow than a go-fast mechanism. You need to
choose to "go slow" when something goes wrong, such as when
you use low-quality media or partially defective media.
Differences exist between CD and DVD media in encoding a maximum
- CD media does not encode a maximum speed, although the media is
manufactured with a maximum speed rating. Because there is no encoded
limit, you can easily exceed the rated speed when recording.
- DVD media encodes a maximum speed; the recording speed cannot
exceed the rated limit for the media.
Regardless of the media, other limits within the configuration can
dictate a lower maximum recording speed; above this maximum speed, the
recording operation fails.
The /BELL qualifier specifies that a
bell sound on completion of the operation.
After the recording
operation completes, the /VERIFY qualifier requests that OpenVMS read
and compare the contents of the recorded media with the input data.
- After successfully mastering your optical media, and you no longer
need the particular LD logical disk for mastering, you can recover the
disk storage occupied by the associated back-up storage file. Enter the
following commands to disconnect and remove the LDA1: device from the
system. You can then delete the back-up storage file:
$ LD DISCONNECT LDA1:
$ DELETE filespec.ISO;*