HP OpenVMS Systems
HP Advanced Server for OpenVMS
To simplify administration of access permissions, you define groups of users. The members of a group are users and other groups. Groups provide an easy way to grant common capabilities to several users; group permissions are provided to all its members.
A group can be either global or local. A global group is a collection of user accounts allowed to access resources in one domain. It can also be assigned permissions to use resources in a trusting domain. A global group:
If a trust relationship has been established between two domains, you can grant access to resources for groups from the trusted domain. To grant permissions to the members of a group from another domain, include the domain name when you specify the group name.
You create the master security accounts database for the domain when you configure the primary domain controller. This database is automatically copied to the backup domain controllers in the domain that are running the NetLogon service. You do not have to create user accounts separately on each server. All the servers in the domain that run the NetLogon service use identical copies of the same domainwide security accounts database.
Through external authentication, specified OpenVMS users are
automatically validated on the network when they log in to the OpenVMS
system running the Advanced Server. This pass-through style of
authentication ensures password synchronization between OpenVMS user
accounts and their corresponding Advanced Server network account. It
eliminates the need for users to maintain a separate password for their
OpenVMS and domain (network) user accounts. For more information about
external authentication, see Section 3.1.17, External Authentication.
1.2.6 Logon Scripts
As the network administrator, you can use logon scripts to configure
the working environments of your users by allowing them to
automatically make network connections and start applications. The
network administrator can create logon scripts and then assign a
different logon script to each user, or create a logon script for
multiple users. A logon script runs automatically whenever a user logs
on at a workstation running Windows NT, Windows XP or Windows 2000.
1.2.7 Home Directories
As the network administrator, you may want to assign a user a home
directory on a server. Users can store private data in their home
directories and have access control over these directories to restrict
or grant access to other users. If users have home directories on
computers other than their own, connections can be made automatically
to home directories whenever users log on. Depending on the client
operating system, you may need to specify the home directory in a logon
script. For information about how to specify a logon script and home
directory for a user account, see Section 3.1.3, User Account Attributes.
1.2.8 Advanced Server Licensing
To access the Advanced Server, clients must be properly licensed with a
valid Client Access license. A client may obtain a client-based license
to access an unlimited number of HP Advanced Servers, or an unlicensed
client may be assigned a server-based license while accessing resources
on a single HP Advanced Server. The Advanced Server includes the
Advanced Server License Server, which distributes client-based licenses
to clients during client startup. The Advanced Server License Registrar
validates client-based licenses when the client establishes a session,
and it allocates server-based licenses. The HP Advanced Server for OpenVMS Server Installation and Configuration Guide describes how
to install the License Server. Refer to the HP Advanced Server for OpenVMS Guide to Managing Advanced Server Licenses for more
information about Advanced Server licensing.
1.3 Resource Sharing
Sharing is the process of making resources (printers, directories, and files) available to users. As the network administrator, you make a resource available to clients who access the printer or directory, by specifying a share name and permissions to control access to the share.
Users gain access to a shared resource by:
As the network administrator, you define which resources to share,
which users and groups can access them, and the type of access each
user and group can have.
1.3.1 Disk Directories
The Advanced Server automatically shares the root directory of all disk devices connected to the server that are mounted when you start the server process. This type of share is called an autoshare. It is accessible by Administrators only.
Advanced Server lets you audit user attempts to access shared files or directories. You specify the types of access attempts to be audited. When one of those events occurs, the Advanced Server records an entry in the Security event log.
For information about setting permissions and auditing for individual files and directories, see Chapter 4, Managing Directory and File Sharing.
The OpenVMS system supports two file systems:
By default, you manage Advanced Server printers and print shares on the server using the ADMINISTER command interface. However, you can configure the server so that you can manage its printers remotely with a Windows NT system.
For information about managing print shares and queues, see
Chapter 5, Managing Printers, Print Queues, and Print Shares.
1.4 Monitoring Events and Troubleshooting
The event log records client and server events. It contains the following information about each event:
You can establish an audit policy for event types on a server and set auditing for individual directories or files. The audit policy defines the types of events to be logged. Auditing also allows you to record server resource use. It can provide the following information about each access attempt:
You can administer the Advanced Server, another server, or a workstation in the network, from either a HP OpenVMS server or from another computer, using one of the interfaces listed in Table 1-1, Network Administration Interfaces.
|Advanced Server for OpenVMS and PATHWORKS V6 for OpenVMS (Advanced Server)||
Includes the following:
|Windows NT Server||Windows NT server administration tools (Windows-based interfaces, including Server Manager, Print Manager, User Manager for Domains, and Event Viewer).|
|PATHWORKS (LAN Manager)||ADMIN/PATH utility (a character-cell user interface), or Net commands (a command-line interface).|
|Advanced Server for UNIX||pwadmin commands (a command-line interface), or net commands (limited functions).|
|DOS client||Net commands (a command-line interface).|
|Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows 2003 client||MS-DOS Net interface (a command-line interface), Windows NT server administration tools (Windows-based user interfaces).|
You can control most aspects of the Advanced Server using the Advanced Server ADMINISTER command-line interface. You invoke the Advanced Server ADMINISTER command-line interface by entering the ADMINISTER command at the OpenVMS system prompt. The Advanced Server command-line interface prompts you with the name of the domain and the name of the server you are currently administering. For example:
$ ADMINISTER LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
In this example, you are managing a domain called LANDOFOZ and a server called TINMAN. You can enter ADMINISTER commands at the prompt.
You can also execute ADMINISTER commands on the DCL command line in the following way:
$ ADMINISTER SET PASSWORD SCARECROW "YellowRoad" "EmeraldCity" %PWRK-S-PSWCHANGED, password changed for user "SCARECROW" in domain "LANDOFOZ" $
In this example, the command-line interface executes a single command and returns to the OpenVMS system prompt.
The ADMINISTER command-line interface prompts you for any required information that you did not supply on the command line. For example, you can log on to the network using the LOGON command, as follows. Note that the password is required, so the software prompts you for it. When type the password, it is not displayed on the screen.
$ ADMINISTER LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> LOGON ADMINISTRATOR Password: The server \\TINMAN successfully logged you on as Administrator. Your privilege level on domain LANDOFOZ is ADMIN. The last time you logged on was 07/19/00 06:41 PM. LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
The Advanced Server ADMINISTER command-line interface has online help that describes command syntax, options, and qualifiers. It also explains each command and gives examples of command use. The Help facility for the ADMINISTER command-line interface has the same structure as OpenVMS DCL help.
To use online help, enter one of the following commands at the DCL prompt ($):
|ADMINISTER HELP||A list of help topics|
|ADMINISTER HELP command||The description, syntax, qualifiers, and examples for the specified ADMINISTER command|
domain\\ server> HELP
|A list of help topics|
For complete information about ADMINISTER commands and their syntax,
refer to the HP Advanced Server for OpenVMS Commands Reference Manual or to the ADMINISTER command-line interface
1.6.2 Administering Domains and Servers
By default, you are set up to administer the local server and the domain to which it belongs. The default domain remains in effect for the duration of the current OpenVMS login session, or until you log off the domain or change the default domain. Commands are executed on the domain and server indicated by the ADMINISTER command-line interface prompt. For example, the following prompt indicates that the domain currently being administered is LANDOFOZ, and the server is TINMAN:
You can use the SET ADMINISTRATION command to administer resources, services, and server operation in another domain or server, if you have been validated for a user account that is a member of the Administrators group. For more information, see Section 2.1.4, Administering Another Domain.
If you have OpenVMS system management privileges SYSLCK and OPER on the system, you can execute any server-related ADMINISTER commands on the local server without logging on to the network, except commands that require operations with other servers. If your local server is a primary domain controller, you can also execute any domain-related commands that do not require operations with other servers. When you have these OpenVMS privileges, you are treated as if you had logged on to the network as Administrator. If you do not have these OpenVMS privileges, or if you want to manage a server other than your local server, you must log on to a network user account that is a member of the Administrators local group (for example, the Administrator user account).
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> LOGON Username: ADMINISTRATOR Password: The server \\TINMAN successfully logged you on as Administrator. Your privilege level on domain LANDOFOZ is ADMIN. The last time you logged on was 09/19/00 06:41 PM. LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
You are prompted for your user name and password. The password is not displayed as you enter it. Once you log on to the domain, you remain logged on after you exit from the ADMINISTER command interface. To log off the domain, use the LOGOFF command before exiting.
You can administer another server using the TELL command. TELL sends the command to be executed to the specified server. In the following example, the server currently being administered is TINMAN, and the other server is WOODMAN. The command to be executed on server WOODMAN is SHOW COMPUTERS.
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> TELL WOODMAN SHOW COMPUTERS %PWRK-I-SRVINFO, the server type is: Advanced Server for OpenVMS Computers in domain "LANDOFOZ": Computer Type Description -------------------- ------------------------- -------------------------- [PD] TINMAN OpenVMS (NT 4.0) Primary Advanced Server V7.3B for OpenVMS [BD] WOODMAN OpenVMS (NT 4.0) Backup Advanced Server V7.3B for OpenVMS Total of 2 computers LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
Be sure to use the proper command syntax for the server you are administering. For example, to administer a server running PATHWORKS V5 for OpenVMS (LAN Manager), use LAN Manager NET commands. In the following example, the PATHWORKS V5 for OpenVMS (LAN Manager) server name is QUEEN.
LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN> TELL QUEEN NET SHARE %PWRK-I-SRVINFO, the server type is: LAN Manager 2.2 for OpenVMS Sharename Resource Remark --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ADMIN$ Remote Admin C$ USERS:[PWRK$ROOT] PATHWORKS share IPC$ Remote IPC USERS$ _QUEEN$DUA1: ODS-2 volume USERS: VAXVMSV0.55$ _QUEEN$DUA2 ODS-2 volume VAXVMSV0.55: NETLOGON Logon Users Directory PWUTIL C:[LANMAN.SHARES.WIN] Adv. Srv. Client-based Utilities RONNIE USERS:[RONNIE] RPL C:[LANMAN.RPL] Remoteboot server share RPLFILES C:[LANMAN.RPL.RPLFILES] Remoteboot server share USERS Logon Users Directory The command completed successfully LANDOFOZ\\TINMAN>
Some of your network users may be designated as members of administrative groups, such as account operators, print operators, server operators, or administrators. These users have administrative or operator privileges that enable them to perform specific tasks, as described in Table 1-2, Administrative Groups.
|Account Operators||Create and manage user accounts and global and local groups.|
|Administrators||Access servers and computers from the network; take ownership of files; manage auditing and security logs; perform all account operator tasks; assign user rights; create groups; keep a local profile; share and stop sharing directories, files, and printers.|
|Print Operators||Keep a local profile; share and stop sharing printers.|
|Server Operators||Access servers and computers from the network; take ownership of files; manage auditing and security logs; share and stop sharing directories, files, and printers.|
If you have different operators responsible for different parts of your network and you do not want to assign them full administrative privileges, make them members of the Server Operators group only at the server they can administer.