HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
HP OpenVMS Programming Concepts Manual
13.5.2 Input Address Arrays and Return Address Arrays
When the SYS$EXPREG system service adds pages to a region, it adds them in the normal direction of growth for the region. The return address array, if requested, indicates the order in which the pages were added. For example:
The addresses returned indicate the first byte in the first page that was added or deleted and the last byte in the last page that was added or deleted.
When input address arrays are specified for the Create and Delete Virtual Address Space (SYS$CRETVA and SYS$DELTVA, respectively) system services, these services add or delete pages beginning with the address specified in the first longword and ending with the address specified in the second longword.
The order in which the pages are added or deleted does not have to be in the normal direction of growth for the region. Moreover, because these services add or delete only whole pages, they ignore the low-order 9 bits of the specified virtual address (the low-order 9 bits contain the byte offset within the page). The virtual addresses returned indicate the byte offsets.
Table 13-1 shows some sample virtual addresses in hexadecimal that may be specified as input to SYS$CRETVA or SYS$DELTVA and shows the return address arrays if all pages are successfully added or deleted.
Note that if the input virtual addresses are the same, as in the fourth
and fifth items in Table 13-1, a single page is added or deleted.
The return address array indicates that the page was added or deleted
in the normal direction of growth for the region.
Each page in the virtual address space of a process is owned by the access mode that created the page. For example, pages in the program region that are initially provided for the execution of an image are owned by user mode. Pages that the image creates dynamically are also owned by user mode. Pages in the control region, except for the pages containing the user stack, are normally owned by more privileged access modes.
Only the owner access mode or a more privileged access mode can delete the page or otherwise affect it. The owner of a page can also indicate, by means of a protection code, the type of access that each access mode will be allowed.
The Set Protection on Pages (SYS$SETPRT) system service changes the protection assigned to a page or group of pages. The protection is expressed as a code that indicates the specific type of access (none, read-only, read/write) for each of the four access modes (kernel, executive, supervisor, user). Only the owner access mode or a more privileged access mode can change the protection for a page.
When an image attempts to access a page that is protected against the access attempted, a hardware exception called an access violation occurs. When an image calls a system service, the service probes the pages to be used to determine whether an access violation would occur if the image attempts to read or write one of the pages. If an access violation would occur, the service exits with the status code SS$_ACCVIO.
Because the memory management services add, delete, or modify a single page at a time, one or more pages can be successfully changed before an access violation is detected. If the retadr argument is specified in the service call, the service returns the addresses of pages changed (added, deleted, or modified) before the error. If no pages are affected, that is, if an access violation would occur on the first page specified, the service returns a value of -1 in both longwords of the return address array.
If the retadr argument is not specified, no
information is returned.
When a process is executing an image, a subset of its pages resides in physical memory; these pages are called the working set of the process. The working set includes pages in both the program region and the control region. The initial size of a process's working set is usually defined by the process's working set default (WSDEFAULT) quota. The maximum size of a process's working set is normally defined by the process's working set quota (WSQUOTA). When ample memory is available, a process's working-set upper growth limit can be expanded by its working set extent (WSEXTENT).
When the image refers to a page that is not in memory, a page fault occurs and the page is brought into memory, replacing an existing page in the working set. If the page that is going to be replaced is modified during the execution of the image, that page is written into a paging file on disk. When this page is needed again, it is brought back into memory, again replacing a current page from the working set. This exchange of pages between physical memory and secondary storage is called paging.
The paging of a process's working set is transparent to the process. However, if a program is very large or if pages in the program image that are used often are being paged in and out frequently, the overhead required for paging may decrease the program's efficiency. The SYS$ADJWSL, SYS$PURGWS, and SYS$LKWSET system services allow a process, within limits, to counteract these potential problems.
The Adjust Working Set Limit (SYS$ADJWSL) system service increases or decreases the maximum number of pages that a process can have in its working set. The format for this routine is as follows:
Use the pagcnt argument to specify the number of pages to add or subtract from the current working set size. The new working set size is returned in wsetlm.
The Lock Pages in Working Set (SYS$LKWSET) system service makes one or more pages in the working set ineligible for paging by locking them in the working set. Once locked into the working set, those pages remain until they are explicitly unlocked with the Unlock Pages in Working Set (SYS$ULWSET) system service or until program execution ends. The format is as follows:
Use the inadr argument to specify the range of addresses to be locked. The range of addresses of the pages actually locked are returned in the retadr argument.
Use the acmode argument to specify the access mode to
be associated with the pages you want locked.
The operating system balances the needs of all the processes currently executing, providing each with the system resources it requires on an as-needed basis. The memory management routines balance the memory requirements of the process. Thus, the sum of the working sets for all processes currently in physical memory is called the balance set.
When a process whose working set is in memory becomes inactive---for example, to wait for an I/O request or to hibernate---the entire working set or part of it may be removed from memory to provide space for another process's working set to be brought in for execution. This removal from memory is called swapping.
The working set may be removed in two ways:
A privileged process may lock itself in the balance set. While pages can still be paged in and out of the working set, the process remains in memory even when it is inactive. To lock itself in the balance set, the process issues the Set Process Swap Mode (SYS$SETSWM) system service, as follows:
This call to SYS$SETSWM disables process swap mode. You can also disable swap mode by setting the appropriate bit in the STSFLG argument to the Create Process (SYS$CREPRC) system service; however, you need the PSWAPM privilege to alter process swap mode.
A process can also lock particular pages in memory with the Lock Pages in Memory (SYS$LCKPAG) system service. These pages are not part of the process's working set, but they are forced into the process's working set. When pages are locked in memory with this service, the pages remain in memory even when the remainder of the process's working set is swapped out of the balance set. These remaining pages stay in memory until they are unlocked with SYS$ULKPAG. SYS$LCKPAG can be useful in special circumstances, for example, for routines that perform I/O operations to devices without using the operating system's I/O system.
You need the PSWAPM privilege to issue SYS$LCKPAG or SYS$ULKPAG.
A section is a disk file or a portion of a disk file containing data or instructions that can be brought into memory and made available to a process for manipulation and execution. A section can also be one or more consecutive page frames in physical memory or I/O space; such sections, which require you to specify page frame number (PFN) mapping, are discussed in Section 18.104.22.168.
When modified pages in writable disk file sections are paged out of memory during image execution, they are written back into the section file rather than into the paging file, as is the normal case with files. (However, copy-on-reference sections are not written back into the section file.)
The use of disk file sections involves these two distinct operations:
The Create and Map Section (SYS$CRMPSC) system service creates and maps a private section or a global section. Because a private section is used only by a single process, creation and mapping are simultaneous operations. In the case of a global section, one process can create a permanent global section and not map to it; other processes can map to it. A process can also create and map a global section in one operation.
The following sections describe the creation, mapping, and use of disk
file sections. In each case, operations and requirements that are
common to both private sections and global sections are described
first, followed by additional notes and requirements for the use of
global sections. Section 22.214.171.124 discusses global page-file sections.
126.96.36.199 Opening the Disk File
Before you can use a file as a section, you must open it using OpenVMS Record Management Services (RMS). The following example shows the OpenVMS RMS file access block ($FAB) and $OPEN macros used to open the file and the channel specification to the SYS$CRMPSC system service necessary for reading an existing file:
In this example, the file options parameter (FOP) indicates that the file is to be opened for user I/O; this parameter is required so that OpenVMS RMS assigns the channel using the access mode of the caller. OpenVMS RMS returns the channel number on which the file is accessed; this channel number is specified as input to SYS$CRMPSC (chan argument). The same channel number can be used for multiple create and map section operations.
The option RTV=--1 tells the file system to keep all of the pointers to be mapped in memory at all times. If this option is omitted, SYS$CRMPSC requests the file system to expand the pointer areas, if necessary. Storage for these pointers is charged to the BYTLM quota, which means that opening a badly fragmented file can fail with an EXBYTLM failure status. Too many fragmented sections may cause the byte limit to be exceeded.
The file may be a new file that is to be created while it is in use as a section. In this case, use the $CREATE macro to open the file. If you are creating a new file, the file access block (FAB) for the file must specify an allocation quantity (ALQ parameter).
You can also use SYS$CREATE to open an existing file; if the file does not exist, it is created. The following example shows the required fields in the FAB for the conditional creation of a file:
When the $CREATE macro is invoked, it creates the file GLOBAL.TST if
the file does not currently exist. The CBT (contiguous best try) option
requests that, if possible, the file be contiguous. Although section
files are not required to be contiguous, better performance can result
if they are.
After the file is opened successfully, SYS$CRMPSC can create a section either from the entire file or from certain portions of it. The following arguments to SYS$CRMPSC define the extents of the file that constitute the section:
188.8.131.52 Defining the Section Characteristics
Table 13-2 shows the flag bits that must be set for specific characteristics.
When you specify section characteristics, the following restrictions apply:
184.108.40.206 Defining Global Section Characteristics
If the section is a global section, you must assign a character string name (gsdnam argument) to it so that other processes can identify it when they map it. The format of this character string name is explained in Section 220.127.116.11.
The flags argument specifies the following types of global sections:
Group global sections can be shared only by processes executing with the same group number. The name of a group global section is implicitly qualified by the group number of the process that created it. When other processes map it, their group numbers must match.
A temporary global section is automatically deleted when no processes are mapped to it, but a permanent global section remains in existence even when no processes are mapped to it. A permanent global section must be explicitly marked for deletion with the Delete Global Section (SYS$DGBLSC) system service.
You need the user privileges PRMGBL and SYSGBL to create permanent group global sections or system global sections (temporary or permanent), respectively.
A system global section is available to all processes in the system.