HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
HP OpenVMS MACRO Compiler
Rounds the range implied by the virtual addresses in a retadr array returned from a memory management system service to a range that is the factor of CPU-specific pages. The return value can be supplied as an inadr array in a subsequent call to another memory management system service.
$ROUND_RETADR retadr, full_range, user_mask_addr, direction=ASCENDING
retadrAddress of array of two 32-bit addresses, typically returned from $CRMPSC or a similar service. This value can be in the form of either "label" or "(Rx)".
full_rangeOutput array of two longwords. FULL_RANGE is retadr rounded down to a CPU-specific page boundary, and FULL_RANGE is retadr rounded up to one less than a CPU-specific page boundary (that is, to the last byte in the page).
user_mask_addrLocation of application-provided byte-within-page mask. If this argument is blank, the macro uses MMG$GL_BWP_MASK on an OpenVMS Alpha or OpenVMS I64 system and VA$M_BYTE on an OpenVMS VAX system.
direction=ASCENDINGDirection of rounding. The keywords are defined in the following table:
ASCENDING retadr < retadr DESCENDING retadr < retadr UNKNOWN Values are compared at run time, then proper rounding is performed
Converts a virtual address to the address of the first byte within that page.
$START_OF_PAGE source_va, dest_va, user_mask_addr, quad=YES
source_vaSource virtual address.
dest_vaDestination of virtual address of first byte within page.
user_mask_addrLocation of application-provided byte-within-page mask. If this argument is blank, the macro uses MMG$GL_BWP_MASK on an OpenVMS Alpha or OpenVMS I64 system and MMG$C_VAX_PAGE_SIZE - 1 (defined in $pagedef) on an OpenVMS VAX system.
quad=YESIf YES, the conversion supports 64-bit addressing. If NO, the conversion does not support 64-bit addressing.
Frequently, VAX MACRO source code must save and restore register values, because that is part of the defined interface or because the code requires work registers.
On OpenVMS VAX, code can invoke any number of macros to do this. On OpenVMS Alpha and OpenVMS I64, you cannot simply replace these macros with 64-bit pushes and pops to and from the stack, because there is no guarantee that the macro caller has a quadword-aligned stack. Instead, you should replace such macro invocations with $PUSH64 and $POP64 macros. These macros, located in STARLET.MLB, preserve all 64 bits of a register but use longword references to do so.
Pops the 64-bit value on the top of the stack into a register.
regRegister into which the macro places the 64-bit value from the top of the stack.
$POP64 takes the 64-bit value at the top of the stack and places it in a register using longword instructions. This is to avoid using quadword instructions when an alignment fault should be avoided, but restoring all 64 bits is necessary.
Pushes the contents of a 64-bit register onto the stack.
regRegister to be pushed onto the stack.
$PUSH64 takes a 64-bit register and puts it on the stack using longword instructions. This is to avoid using quadword instructions when an alignment fault should be avoided, but saving all 64 bits is necessary.
Five macros are provided for locking pages into a working set. These macros reside in SYS$LIBRARY:LIB.MLB. For a description of how to use these macros, see Section 3.10.
Three macros are used for image initialization-time lockdown, and two macros are used for on-the-fly lockdown.
If the code is being locked because the IPL will be raised above 2, where page faults cannot occur, make sure that the delimited code does not call run-time library or other procedures. The VAX MACRO compiler generates calls to routines to emulate certain VAX instructions. An image that uses these macros must link against the system base image so that references to these routines are resolved by code in a nonpageable executive image.
For OpenVMS I64 systems, these macros are still under development and additional OpenVMS routines are being provided to lock working sets. See the OpenVMS I64 Release Notes for more information.
These macros are used for image initialization-time lockdown:
Required in the initialization routines of an image that is using $LOCKED_PAGE_START and $LOCKED_PAGE_END to delineate areas to be locked at initialization time.
[error]Address to which to branch if one of the $LKWSET calls fail. If this address is reached, R0 reflects the status of the failed call, and R1 contains 0 if the call to lock the code failed, or 1 if that call succeeded but the call to lock the linkage section failed.
$LOCK_PAGE_INIT creates the necessary psects and issues the $LWKSET calls to lock into the working set the code and linkage sections that were declared by $LOCKED_PAGE_START and $LOCKED_PAGE_END. R0 and R1 are destroyed by this macro.
The psects locked by this macro are $LOCK_PAGE_2 and $LOCK_LINKAGE_2. If code sections in other modules, written in other languages, use these psects, they will be locked by an invocation of this macro in a VAX MACRO module.
Marks the end of a section of code that may be locked at image initialization time by the $LOCK_PAGE_INIT macro.
[link_sect]Psect to return to if the linkage psect in effect when the $LOCKED_PAGE_START macro was executed was not the default linkage psect, $LINKAGE.
$LOCKED_PAGE_END is used with $LOCKED_PAGE_START to delineate code that may be locked at image initialization time by the $LOCK_PAGE_INIT macro. The code delineated by these macros must contain complete routines---execution cannot fall through either macro, nor can you branch into or out of the locked code. Any attempt to branch into or out of the locked code section or to fall through the macros will be flagged by the compiler with an error.
Marks the start of a section of code that may be locked at image initialization time by the $LOCK_PAGE_INIT macro.
There are no parameters for this macro.
$LOCKED_PAGE_START is used with $LOCKED_PAGE_END to delineate code that may be locked at image initialization time by the $LOCK_PAGE_INIT macro. The code delineated by these macros must contain complete routines---execution may not fall through either macro, nor may the locked code be branched into or out of. Any attempt to branch into or out of the locked code section or to fall through the macros will be flagged by the compiler with an error.
These macros are used for on-the-fly lockdown:
Marks the beginning of a section of code to be locked on-the-fly.
[error]Address to branch to if one of the $LKWSET calls fail.
This macro is placed inline in executable code and must be followed by the $UNLOCK_PAGE macro. The $LOCK_PAGE/$UNLOCK_PAGE macro pair creates a separate routine in a separate psect. $LOCK_PAGE locks the pages and linkage section of this separate routine into the working set and JSRs to it. All code between this macro and the matching $UNLOCK_PAGE macro is included in the locked routine and is locked down.
All registers are preserved by this macro unless the error address parameter is present and one of the calls fail. If that happens, R0 reflects the status of the failed call. R1 then contains 0 if the call to lock the code failed or 1 if that call succeeded but the call to lock the linkage section failed.
If the ERROR parameter is used, the ERROR label must be placed outside the scope of the $LOCK_PAGE and $UNLOCK_PAGE pair. This is because the error routine is branched to before calling the subroutine that the $LOCK_PAGE and $UNLOCK_PAGE routines create.
Note that since the locked code is made into a separate routine, any references to local stack storage within the routine will have to be changed, as the stack context is no longer the same. Also, you cannot branch into or out of the locked code from the rest of the routine.
Marks the end of a section of code to be locked on-the-fly.
[error]An error address to which to branch if one of the $ULKWSET calls fail.
[link_sect]Linkage psect to return to if the linkage psect in effect when the $LOCK_PAGE macro was executed was not the default linkage psect, $LINKAGE.
$UNLOCK_PAGE returns from the locked routine created by the $LOCK_PAGE and $UNLOCK_PAGE macro pair and then unlocks the pages and linkage section from the working set. This macro is placed inline in executable code after a $LOCK_PAGE macro.
All registers are preserved by this macro unless the error address parameter is present and one of the calls fail. If that happens, R0 reflects the status of the failed call. R1 then contains 0 if the call to unlock the code failed or 1 if that call succeeded but the call to unlock the linkage section failed.
If the error parameter is used, the error label must be placed outside the scope of the $LOCK_PAGE and $UNLOCK_PAGE pair. This is because the error routine is branched to after returning from the subroutine created by the $LOCK_PAGE and $UNLOCK_PAGE routines.
This appendix describes the following:
These macros reside in the directory SYS$LIBRARY:STARLET.MLB and can be used by both application code and system code.
The page macros accommodate for 64-bit addresses. The support is provided by the QUAD=NO/YES parameter.
You can use certain arguments to these macros to indicate register sets. To express a register set, list the registers, separated by commas, within angle brackets. For example:
If the set contains only one register, the angle brackets are not
E.1 Macros for Manipulating 64-Bit Addresses
These macros are used to manipulate 64-bit addresses:
Initializes the call sequence.
$SETUP_CALL64 arg_count, inline=true | false
arg_countThe number of arguments in the call.
inlineForces inline expansion, rather than creation of a JSB routine, when set to TRUE. If there are six or fewer arguments on OpenVMS Alpha, or eight or fewer on OpenVMS I64, the default is inline=false.
This macro initializes the state for a 64-bit call. It must be used before using $PUSH_ARG64 and $CALL64.
If there are six or fewer arguments on OpenVMS Alpha, or eight or fewer on OpenVMS I64, the code is always in line.
By default, if there are more than six arguments on OpenVMS Alpha or eight arguments on OpenVMS I64, this macro creates a JSB routine that is invoked to perform the actual call. However, if the inline option is specified as inline=true, the code is generated in line.
This option should be enabled only if the code in which it appears has a fixed stack depth. A fixed stack depth can be assumed if no RUNTIMSTK or VARSIZSTK messages have been reported. Otherwise, if the stack alignment is not at least quadword, there might be many alignment faults in the called routine and in anything the called routine calls. The default behavior (inline=false) does not have this problem.
If there are more than six arguments on OpenVMS Alpha or eight arguments on OpenVMS I64, there can be no references to AP or SP between a $SETUP_CALL64 and the matching $CALL64, because the $CALL64 code may be in a separate JSB routine. In addition, temporary registers (R16 and above) may not survive the $SETUP_CALL64. However, they can be used within the range, except where (on Alpha only) R16 through R21 interfere with the argument registers already set up. In such cases, higher temporary registers should be used instead.
The $SETUP_CALL64, $PUSH_ARG64, and $CALL64 macros are intended to be used in an inline sequence. That is, you cannot branch into the middle of a $SETUP_CALL64/$PUSH_ARG64/$CALL64 sequence, nor can you branch around $PUSH_ARG64 macros or branch out of the sequence to avoid the $CALL64.
Does the equivalent of argument pushes for a call.
argumentThe argument to be pushed.
This macro pushes a 64-bit argument for a 64-bit call. The macro $SETUP_CALL64 must be used before you can use $PUSH_ARG64.
Arguments will be read as aligned quadwords. That is, $PUSH_ARG64 4(R0) will read the quadword at 4(R0), and push the quadword. Any indexed operations will be done in quadword mode.
To push a longword value from memory as a quadword, first move it into a register with a longword instruction, and then use $PUSH_ARG64 on the register. Similarly, to push a quadword value that you know is not aligned, move it to a temporary register first, and then use $PUSH_ARG64.
If the call contains more than six arguments on OpenVMS Alpha or eight arguments on OpenVMS I64, this macro checks for SP or AP references in the argument.
If the call contains more than six arguments on OpenVMS Alpha or eight arguments on OpenVMS I64, SP references are not allowed, and AP references are allowed only if the inline option is used.
OpenVMS Alpha systems only: The macro also checks for references to argument registers that have already been set up for the current $CALL64. If it finds such references, a warning is reported to advise the user to be careful not to overwrite an argument register before it is used as the source in a $PUSH_ARG64.
OpenVMS Alpha systems only: The same checking is done for AP references when there are six or fewer arguments; they are allowed, but the compiler cannot prevent you from overwriting one before you use it. Therefore, if such references are found, an informational message is reported.
OpenVMS Alpha systems only: Note that if the operand uses a symbol whose name includes one of the strings R16 through R21, not as a register reference, this macro might report a spurious error. For example, if the invocation $PUSH_ARG64 SAVED_R21 is made after R21 has been set up, this macro will unnecessarily report an informational message about overwriting argument registers.
Also note that $PUSH_ARG64 cannot be in conditional code. $PUSH_ARG64 updates several symbols, such as the remaining argument count. Attempting to write code that branches around a $PUSH_ARG64 in the middle of a $SETUP_CALL64/$CALL64 sequence will not work properly.
Invokes the target routine.
call_targetThe routine to be invoked.
This macro calls the specified routine, assuming $SETUP_CALL64 has been used to specify the argument count, and $PUSH_ARG64 has been used to push the quadword arguments. This macro checks that the number of pushes matches what was specified in the setup call.
The call_target operand must not be AP- or SP-based.
These macros are used for checking certain values and directing program flow based on the outcome of the check:
Checks the sign extension of the low 32 bits of a 64-bit value and directs the program flow based on the outcome of the check.
$IS_32BITS quad_arg, leq_32bits, gtr_32bits, temp_reg=22
quad_argA 64-bit quantity, either in a register or in an aligned quadword memory location.
leq_32bitsLabel to branch to if quad_arg is a 32-bit sign-extended value.
gtr_32bitsLabel to branch to if quad_arg is greater than 32 bits.
temp_reg=22Register to use as a temporary register for holding the low longword of the source value---R22 is the default.
$IS_32BITS checks the sign extension of the low 32 bits of a 64-bit value and directs the program flow based on the outcome of the check.
$is_32bits R9, 10$
In this example, the compiler checks the sign extension of the low 32 bits of the 64-bit value at R9 using the default temporary register, R22. Depending on the type of branch and the outcome of the test, the program either branches or continues in line.
$is_32bits 4(R8), 20$, 30$, R28
In this example, the compiler checks the sign extension of the low 32 bits of the 64-bit value at 4(R8) using R28 as a temporary register and, based on the check, branches to either 20$ or 30$.
Tests the specified descriptor to determine if it is a 64-bit format descriptor, and directs the program flow based on the outcome of the test.
$IS_DESC64 desc_addr, target, size=long | quad
desc_addrThe address of the descriptor to test.
targetThe label to branch to if the descriptor is in 64-bit format.
size=long|quadThe size of the address pointing to the descriptor. The default value is size=long.
$IS_DESC64 tests the fields that distinguish a 64-bit descriptor from a 32-bit descriptor. If it is in 64-bit form, a branch is taken to the specified target. The address to be tested is read as a longword, unless size=quad is specified.
$is_desc64 r9, 10$
In this example, the descriptor pointed to by R9 is tested, and if it is in 64-bit form, a branch to 10$ is taken.
$is_desc64 8(r0), 20$, size=quad
In this example, the quadword at 8(R0) is read, and the descriptor it points to is tested. If it is in 64-bit form, a branch to 20$ is taken.