HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
To add individual entries to the BOOTP database, enter:
TCPIP> SET BOOTP host /FILE=download_file/HARDWARE=ADDRESS=hex_address
In the following example, the SET BOOTP command adds host PLOVER, with hardware address 08-00-2D-20-23-21, to the BOOTP database. Note that the SET BOOTP command accepts as a parameter either the host name or the host's IP address. In the following example, the host name is specified:
TCPIP> SET BOOTP PLOVER /HARDWARE=ADDRESS=08-00-2D-20-23-21 /FILE=PLOVER.SYS
To display the BOOTP database, enter the SHOW BOOTP command, as follows:
TCPIP> SHOW BOOTP Host Hardware address 10.10.2.3 08-00-00-20-23-21 10.10.2.120 08-00-2B-A2-20-49 10.10.2.22 08-00-2D-20-23-21
To modify a record in the BOOTP database, use the SET BOOTP command. For example, to stop using hosts seagull, tern, and sandpiper as gateways for downline loading to PLOVER, enter:
TCPIP> SET BOOTP PLOVER /NOGATEWAYS=(seagull,tern,sandpiper)
To delete an entry from the BOOTP database, use the SET NOBOOTP command.
9.6 Solving BOOTP Problems
Most problems with BOOTP are due to:
If BOOTP fails to respond to a client request, follow these steps:
The BOOTP server ignores incoming requests from unknown clients (for example, clients that are not found in the BOOTP database). Therefore, it can be difficult to identify why incoming requests are not serviced.
By default, BOOTP does not generate logging information, even though it opens the file SYS$SYSDEVICE:[TCPIP$BOOTP]TCPIP$BOOTP_RUN.LOG. If you turn on logging, the log displays the client hardware address for every incoming BOOTP request, as well as any information used in response to those requests. With this information, you can detect whether the server sees a particular client request. To turn on logging, define the following logical name. To activate the logical, shut down and restart the BOOTP service. For example:
$ DEFINE /SYSTEM TCPIP$BOOTP_TRACE 1 $ @SYS$STARTUP:TCPIP$BOOTP_SHUTDOWN.COM $ @SYS$STARTUP:TCPIP$BOOTP_STARTUP.COM
Remove the logical names and restart BOOTP as soon as the problem is fixed. On a busy network with frequent BOOTP requests, the log file can rapidly consume large amounts of space on your system disk.
The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) handles the file transfer from a TFTP server to a diskless client or other remote system. The client initiates the file transfer.
The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) server answers network bootstrap requests from diskless workstations and other network devices such as routers, terminal servers, and network switching equipment. For more information about setting up the BOOTP service, see Chapter 9.
This chapter reviews key concepts and describes:
The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) transfers files from a TFTP server to diskless clients or other remote systems. The client initiates the file transfer.
If the client sends a read request to the TFTP server, the server attempts to locate this file.
TFTP has the following characteristics:
To set up the TFTP server software, run TCPIP$CONFIG (see the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Installation and Configuration manual).
The procedure creates:
The TFTP server allows clients to transfer data and program images to the TFTP server host. However, before the data transfer, a file must be created on the TFTP server host to which the data is transferred. This process controls the creation of files on the host, preventing unwanted files from being created on the TFTP host.
Each incoming transfer of data to a file creates a new version of the target file. As a result, you must manage the consumption of disk space on the server system by carefully setting up file version limits for the target files and directories.
To limit the number of versions of a file that can be created in a new directory, include the /VERSION_LIMIT qualifier on the DCL command CREATE/DIRECTORY. For example:
$ CREATE/DIRECTORY/VERSION_LIMIT=10 [MYPROJECT.SAVE]
Table 10-1 summarizes the TFTP management commands.
|ENABLE SERVICE TFTP||Enables the TFTP service.|
|DISABLE SERVICE TFTP||Disables the TFTP service.|
|SET SERVICE TFTP||Configures TFTP in the service database.|
|SET NOSERVICE TFTP||Disables TFTP in the service database.|
|SHOW SERVICE TFTP||Displays information about TFTP from the service database.|
The logical name described in Table 10-2 can be used to modify the behavior of the TFTP service:
|TCPIP$TFTP_ROOT||Defines a concealed device that points to TFTP data storage. By default, the concealed device is SYS$SYSDEVICE:[TCPIP$TFTP_ROOT]. For more information, see Section 10.3.|
The TFTP service can be shut down and started independently. This is useful when you change parameters or logical names that require the service to be restarted. The following files are provided:
To preserve site-specific parameter settings and commands, create the following files. These files are not overwritten when you reinstall TCP/IP Services:
To enable and disable TFTP, use these commands:
To check whether these services are enabled or disabled, enter these commands:
The following command shows how to obtain complete information about TFTP settings and statistics:
TCPIP> SHOW SERVICE TFTP /FULL Service: TFTP State: Enabled Port: 69 Protocol: UDP Address: 0.0.0.0 Inactivity: 5 User_name: TCPIP$TFTP Process: TCPIP$TFTP Limit: 1 Active: 1 Peak: 1 File: SYS$SYSDEVICE:[TCPIP$TFTP]TCPIP$TFTP_RUN.COM Flags: Listen Socket Opts: Rcheck Scheck Receive: 0 Send: 0 Log Opts: Acpt Actv Dactv Conn Error Exit Logi Logo Mdfy Rjct TimO Addr File: SYS$SYSDEVICE:[TCPIP$TFTP]TCPIP$TFTPD_RUN.LOG Security Reject msg: not defined Accept host: 0.0.0.0 Accept netw: 0.0.0.0
For security purposes, the server runs as an unprivileged image that can access only the directories and files for which it has read access.
Compaq recommends that you safeguard your system's normal file protection mechanisms from unauthorized TFTP access. In particular, ensure the security of system files.
A client's download request can use one of several formats for its file name specification:
For example, if a client named GULL.SHORE.COM sends a read request for the file SERVICE.DAT, the server's first attempt to find the file is in TCPIP$TFTP_ROOT:[GULL]. If that directory does not exist, the server next looks in the TCPIP$TFTP_ROOT: root directory, for example, in TCPIP$TFTP_ROOT:SERVICE.DAT.
If the TFTP client requests a file by specifying a name in UNIX format (for example, /etc/gull/myfile ), TFTP translates this file specification into OpenVMS format.
The TFTP server runs as the nonprivileged OpenVMS user accounts TCPIP$TFTP. When you set up TFTP, follow these security procedures:
The TFTP server is restricted to accessing only files or directories that OpenVMS file system security measures allow. Verify that these files have the appropriate protection and ownership so that the TFTP server has access to them. See Section 10.3 for more information.
The log file, SYS$SYSDEVICE:[TCPIP$TFTP]TCPIP$TFTP_RUN.LOG, can be useful for troubleshooting TFTP transfer failures.
The Portmapper service eliminates the need to preconfigure all client and server remote procedure call (RPC) applications with the port numbers they use. The Portmapper "listens" at port 111 and maintains a database of registered server programs, their unique program numbers, and assigned port numbers.
This chapter describes:
For information about programming with the RPC application programming
interface (API), see the DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS ONC RPC Programming manual.
11.1 Configuring Services to Use the Portmapper
You must run the Portmapper if you intend to use the following applications:
When you configure these services with TCPIP$CONFIG, you will be automatically prompted to set up the Portmapper service. The Portmapper service is then started when you start TCP/IP Services.
The SET SERVICE command configures the applications so they are known to the Portmapper. To set RPC-related parameters, use the /RPC qualifier. Enter:
TCPIP> SET SERVICE service - _TCPIP> /RPC=(PROGRAM_NUMBER=n, VERSION_NUMBER=(LOWEST=n, HIGHEST=n))
The TCPIP services that use the Portmapper have the following default values for the /RPC qualifier:
|Service||Default Program Number||Default Lowest Version||Default Highest Version|
The Portmapper service can be shut down and started independently. This is useful when you change parameters or logical names that require the service to be restarted.
The following files are provided:
To preserve site-specific parameter settings and commands, you can create the following files. These files are not overwritten when you reinstall TCP/IP Services:
The following examples show a variety of commands you can use to get information about the Portmapper and the services that depend on it.
TCPIP> SHOW SERVICE /RPC /PERMANENT RPC Protocol Versions Service Program Number Lowest / Highest MOUNT 100005 1 3 NFS 100003 2 3 PCNFS 150001 1 2 PORTMAPPER 100000 2 2 TCPIP>
TCPIP> SHOW SERVICE NFS /FULL /PERMANENT Service: NFS Port: 2049 Protocol: UDP Address: 0.0.0.0 Inactivity: 0 User_name: TCPIP$NFS Process: TCPIP$NFS Limit: 1 File: TCPIP$SYSTEM:TCPIP$NFS_RUN.COM Flags: TCPIP Socket Opts: Rcheck Scheck Receive: 64000 Send: 64000 Log Opts: Acpt Actv Dactv Conn Error Exit Logi Logo Mdfy Rjct TimO Addr File: SYS$SYSDEVICE:[TCPIP$NFS]TCPIP$NFS_RUN.LOG RPC Opts Program number: 100003 Low version: 2 High version: 3 Security Reject msg: not defined Accept host: 0.0.0.0 Accept netw: 0.0.0.0 TCPIP>
TCPIP> SHOW PORTMAPPER Program Number Version Protocol Port-number Process Service-name --------------------- ------- -------- ----------- -------- ------------ 000186A0 ( 100000) 2 TCP 111 00000060 PORTMAPPER 000186A0 ( 100000) 2 UDP 111 00000060 PORTMAPPER 000186A5 ( 100005) 1 UDP 10 00000064 MOUNT 000186A5 ( 100005) 3 UDP 10 00000064 MOUNT 000186A5 ( 100005) 1 TCP 10 00000064 MOUNT 000186A5 ( 100005) 3 TCP 10 00000064 MOUNT 000186A3 ( 100003) 2 TCP 2049 00000065 NFS 000186A3 ( 100003) 2 UDP 2049 00000065 NFS 000186A3 ( 100003) 3 TCP 2049 00000065 NFS 000186A3 ( 100003) 3 UDP 2049 00000065 NFS
TCPIP> SHOW SERVICE PORTMAPPER Service Port Protocol Process Address State PORTMAPPER 111 TCP,UDP TCPIP$PORTM 0.0.0.0 Enabled TCPIP>