HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
TCP/IP Services software includes the PATHWORKS Internet Protocol (PWIP) driver and the PWIP ancillary control process (PWIP_ACP).
The PWIP driver allows OpenVMS systems that are running both the Compaq
PATHWORKS/Advanced Server and the TCP/IP Services software to communicate
with personal computers running PATHWORKS client software. It also
enables the DECnet-over-TCP/IP feature, which is included with the
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Version 6.0 and later software. For more
information about DECnet over TCP/IP, see the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS
1.2.1 Starting and Stopping the PWIP Driver
The PWIP driver can be shut down and started independently. The following files are provided:
To preserve site-specific parameter settings and commands, create the following files. These files are not overwritten when you reinstall TCP/IP Services.
To start the PWIP driver, run TCPIP$CONFIG or enter the following command:
To shut down the connection to the PWIP driver, enter the following command:
You will need to set up accounts for local users, coordinate the establishment of corresponding accounts on remote systems, and create accounts for remote users who will be accessing server components on the local host.
When creating accounts for remote users, you can create one account for all remote users, an account for groups of remote users, or accounts for individual users. The strategy you use depends on your organization, system resources, and security needs.
Certain product components (for example, LPD, RSH, RLOGIN, and NFS) act as servers for remote clients. You control access to your system and to these services by giving remote users proxy identities. A proxy identity maps a user account on one host to an account on another host. The information you provide with each entry, along with the privileges you set for the account, lets you specifically grant or deny access to your system.
The configuration procedure TCPIP$CONFIG creates a proxy database file called TCPIP$PROXY. You add proxies to this database with the ADD PROXY command. The TCP/IP Services product allows two types of proxies:
TCPIP> ADD PROXY user /HOST=host /REMOTE_USER=user
TCPIP> ADD PROXY STAFF /HOST=STAR /REMOTE_USER=*
TCPIP> ADD PROXY CHESTER /NFS=OUTGOING /UID=23 /GID=34 /HOST="orbit"
See the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management Command Reference manual for a complete description of the ADD PROXY
command. For a more complete discussion about UNIX style identities and
how the NFS server and client use the proxy database, see Chapter 20.
1.4 Configuring a TCP/IP Cluster
If your host is part of an OpenVMS Cluster, you can use a cluster alias to represent the entire cluster or selected host members. In this case, the network sees the cluster as a single system with one name. Alternatively, you can configure clustering using a DNS alias, as described in Chapter 5.
Incoming requests are switched among the cluster hosts at the end of each cluster time interval (specified with the SET COMMUNICATION command).
The cluster name is not switched from a host if there are any active TCP connections to the cluster interface on that host.
All of the TCP/IP services support automatic failover and can be run on
multiple nodes in an OpenVMS Cluster. For example, if more than one
host in the cluster is running the NFS server, the cluster can appear
to the NFS client as a single host. For more information about
configuring a specific service for cluster failover, refer to the
chapter in this manual that discusses the particular service.
1.4.1 Setting Up an ARP-Based Cluster
Compaq strongly recommends using the configuration procedure TCPIP$CONFIG to configure a TCP/IP cluster. If you cannot run TCPIP$CONFIG, configure a TCP/IP cluster by completing the following steps:
TCPIP> SET INTERFACE QE0 /CLUSTER=ALLOFUS /C_NETWORK=255.255.0.0 - _TCPIP> /C_BROADCAST=18.104.22.168
TCPIP> SET CONFIGURATION INTERFACE QE0 /CLUSTER=ALLOFUS - _TCPIP> /C_NETWORK=255.255.0.0 /C_BROADCAST=22.214.171.124
TCPIP> SET COMMUNICATION /CLUSTER_TIMER=30
TCPIP> SET COMMUNICATION /CLUSTER_TIMER=0
The auxiliary server is the TCP/IP Services implementation of the UNIX internet daemon ( inetd ). In addition to standard inetd functions, the auxiliary server provides access control and event logging.
The auxiliary server listens continuously
for incoming requests and acts as a master server for programs
specified in its configuration file. The auxiliary server reduces the
load on the system by invoking services only as they are needed.
1.5.1 How the Auxiliary Server Works
The auxiliary server listens for connections on the internet addresses of the services that its configuration file (TCPIP$SERVICES.DAT) specifies. When a connection is found, it invokes the server daemon for the service requested. Once a server is finished, the auxiliary server continues to listen on the socket.
When it receives a request, the auxiliary server dynamically creates a network process, obtaining user account information from one or all of the following sources:
In addition, users requesting services at the client can include their user account information as part of the command line.
Once a process is created, the auxiliary server starts the requested
service. All services except RLOGIN and TELNET must have access to
their default device and directories and to the command procedures
126.96.36.199 Rejecting Client Requests
The auxiliary server rejects client requests for the following reasons:
The postinstallation configuration procedure, TCPIP$CONFIG, creates an entry in the services database (TCPIP$SERVICE.DAT) for each service you configure. If you need to modify your initial configuration, run TCPIP$CONFIG or use the SET SERVICE command.
The configuration file TCPIP$SERVICE.DAT includes information about the service name, the socket and protocol type associated with the service, the user name under which the service should run, and any special options for the service program.
Before you activate a service manually, configure the auxiliary server as follows:
TCPIP> SET SERVICE service /PROCESS_NAME=process
For TELNET and RLOGIN, the process name is set by either the system or users.
TCPIP> SET SERVICE service-name /LIMIT=n
$ SET PROTECTION=(W:RE) SYS$MANAGER:SYLOGIN.COM
The services you configured are enabled during the TCP/IP Services startup procedure. Afterwards, to initialize (enable) a service, enter the following command:
TCPIP> ENABLE SERVICE
The ENABLE SERVICE command immediately changes the running system. The SET CONFIGURATION ENABLE SERVICE command causes the services to be enabled the next time TCP/IP Services starts up.
To specify the type of socket, include the /PROTOCOL qualifier on the SET SERVICE command line. For example, to specify stream sockets, enter /PROTOCOL=TCP. To specify datagram sockets, enter /PROTOCOL=UDP.
The auxiliary server can set socket options for a requested service either before or during data communications. Some available options are:
To set the socket options, include the /SOCKET_OPTIONS qualifier on the
SET SERVICE command.
1.6.1 Setting Up Event Logging
Event logging can help you manage the software. By default, user-defined services do not log events, but you can enable event logging for all or selected configured services. You can configure the product to log events to the operator's console, a log file, or both. To set up event logging, enter the following command:
SET SERVICE service-name /LOG_OPTIONS=ALL
Some product components provide additional event logging capabilities. See individual component chapters for more information.
OpenVMS systems running TCP/IP Services communicate with other internet hosts over a variety of physical media. Because TCP/IP is independent of the underlying physical network, IP addresses are implemented in the network software, not the network hardware. (See the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Software Product Description for a complete list of supported media.)
This chapter reviews key concepts and describes:
A network controller is the hardware connection between a computer system and a physical network. Controllers perform the packet channeling to and from the physical medium of your network, usually a cable.
The network interface is a logical network controller --- a software component that communicates with your network software and the network controller.
For each interface, you can enable or disable the interface, set the
subnet mask, and assign IP and broadcast addresses.
2.2 Configuring Network Controllers
TCP/IP Services automatically recognizes network controllers at startup. If you need to change the configuration (remove, modify, or add new network controllers to your system) after installing and configuring the product, follow the installation and configuration instructions that come with your hardware; then run TCPIP$CONFIG again. The TCP/IP Services software will recognize the new controller immediately, and will create new interfaces the next time the software starts up.
Hardware installation and configuration instructions are specific for the various network controllers. Be sure to read the instructions provided with your new hardware before installing.
The configuration procedure initially configures your network interfaces. Use the following commands if you need to redefine an interface or configure serial lines. See Chapter 3 for more information about configuring serial lines.
If you are redefining an existing interface, enter the SET NOINTERFACE command before you enter the SET INTERFACE command.
Interface names include the following information:
|For this controller||Use this interface type|
|Ethernet||B, C, D, F, I, N, O, Q, R, S, W, X, Z|
|FDDI||A, C, F, Q, R, W|
|Token Ring||C, R|
|For this controller||Use this interface class|
Primary interfaces for Ethernet controllers have names in the range SE, SE0, SE1, SE2, ...SE24, SE25.
Interfaces for PPP controllers have names in the range PP, PP0, PP1, ...PP998, PP999.
Interfaces for local (loopback) controllers have names in the range LO, LO0, LO1, ...L08, L09
OpenVMS network devices are always template devices and are enumerated as FWA0, FWB0, FWC0, ...FWY0, FWZ0.
An IP address consists of a network number and a host number. The network mask is the part of the host field of the IP address the identifies the network. Every host on the same network must have the same network mask. To specify the network mask, use the /NETWORK_MASK qualifier.
TCP/IP Services calculates the default by setting:
You can also divide the host field into a site-specific network and
2.3.3 Specifying Additional IP Addresses
To establish an additional IP address for an interface, define a network alias. This can be useful when changing network numbers and you want to continue to accept packets addressed to the old interface, or for setting up a host with a single interface to act as a router between subnets. Network aliases can be added in two functionally identical ways:
$ netstat -n "-I" wf0 Name Mtu Network Address Ipkts Ierrs Opkts Oerrs Coll WF0 4470 <Link> 0:0:f8:bd:bc:22 3049700 0 2976912 0 0 WF0 4470 10.10.1 10.10.1.100 3049700 0 2976912 0 0
$ ifconfig wf0 alias 10.10.2.100/24
$ netstat -n "-I" wf0 Name Mtu Network Address Ipkts Ierrs Opkts Oerrs Coll WF0 4470 <Link> 0:0:f8:bd:bc:22 3049700 0 2976912 0 0 WF0 4470 10.10.1 10.10.1.100 3049700 0 2976912 0 0 WF0 4470 10.10.2 10.10.2.100 3049700 0 2976912 0 0
TCPIP> HELP IFCONFIG PARAMETERS