DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS
Introduction and User's Guide
This manual introduces DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS. It provides an overview
of the product's features and a conceptual overview of DECnet-Plus.
This manual supersedes the DECnet/OSI for OpenVMS Introduction and
OpenVMS VAX Version 7.1
OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.1
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Version 7.1
Digital Equipment Corporation Maynard, Massachusetts
Digital Equipment Corporation makes no representations that the use of
its products in the manner described in this publication will not
infringe on existing or future patent rights, nor do the descriptions
contained in this publication imply the granting of licenses to make,
use, or sell equipment or software in accordance with the description.
Possession, use, or copying of the software described in this
publication is authorized only pursuant to a valid written license from
DIGITAL or an authorized sublicensor.
DIGITAL conducts its business in a manner that conserves the
environment and protects the safety and health of its employees,
customers, and the community.
© Digital Equipment Corporation 1996. All rights reserved.
The following are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation:
Bookreader, DDCMP, DEC, DECdirect, DECnet, DECNIS, DECserver,
DECsystem, DECwindows, DIGITAL, DNA, InfoServer, OpenVMS, OpenVMS
Cluster, PATHWORKS, ULTRIX, VAX, VAX DOCUMENT, VAXcluster, VAXstation,
VMS, RSX, and the DIGITAL logo.
The following are third-party trademarks:
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OS/2 is a registered trademark of International Business Machines
OSF/1 is a registered trademark of Open Software Foundation, Inc.
OSI is a registered trademark of CA Management, Inc.
SCO is a trademark of Santa Cruz Operations, Inc.
UNIX is a registered trademark in the United States and other
countries, licensed exclusively through X/Open Company Ltd.
All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of
their respective holders.
This document was prepared using VAX DOCUMENT, Version V3.2m.
This book introduces the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS (formerly DECnet/OSI)
product, providing an overview of the product's features and a
conceptual overview of DECnet-Plus software. Also described are common
end-user tasks such as how to use the remote file, remote login, and
mail utilities. A complete glossary of DECnet-Plus terminology is also
See your Software Product Description (SPD) for detailed information
about new features and product requirements.
This book is written for:
- Network planners and managers, both DECnet for OpenVMS (Phase IV)
users and new DECnet-Plus (Phase V) users
- OpenVMS system managers
- Installers of OpenVMS
- Namespace planners and managers
- DECdts planners and managers
- Managers of these Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) features:
- OSI Transport connections
- X.25 communications
- Wide area network device drivers (WANDD)
- Remote OSI file operations
- DECnet-Plus virtual terminal
- Writing and running additional OSI applications
This book has four parts:
- Part I provides an overview of:
- Transitioning to DECnet-Plus
- Features and components of the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS product
- Part II provides conceptual information about:
- DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS
- X.25 networking
- Part III provides user information on:
- Using remote files with DECnet-Plus
- Using the DECnet-Plus login utility
- Sending mail to DECnet-Plus nodes
- Part IV is a glossary of DECnet-Plus terminology.
Guide to Documentation
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS documentation is available in three sets:
- Documentation set for OpenVMS Alpha systems
- Documentation set for OpenVMS VAX systems
- Supplemental X.25 documentation set for OpenVMS Alpha systems
Table 1 lists the documentation that supports this version of the
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS software.
Table 1 DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Documentation
|Documentation Sets: OpenVMS Alpha and VAX Systems
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Introduction and User's Guide
This manual. Describes the manuals in the documentation sets, outlines
the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS features and tools, explains how to use and
manage an end system, and provides a comprehensive glossary of DECnet
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Release Notes
Print this text file at the beginning of the installation procedure and
read it before you install DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS. Volume 1 of the
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS distribution kit contains the Release Notes.
Describes changes to the software; installation, upgrade, and
compatibility information; new and existing software problems and
restrictions; and software and documentation corrections.
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Installation and Basic Configuration
Explains how to install and configure the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS
software and how to perform postinstallation tasks.
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Installation Quick Reference Card
Provides quick-reference information to help you install DECnet-Plus
software on an OpenVMS node. Use this card with the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Installation and Basic Configuration manual.
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Applications Installation and Advanced Configuration
Explains how to install X.25 for OpenVMS Alpha, X.25 Access and X.25
Native Mode for OpenVMS VAX (formerly VAX P.S.I. Access and VAX
P.S.I.), FTAM, VT, and OSAK software. Includes information about how to
configure DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS using the Advanced configuration
option and how to modify an existing configuration.
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Network Management
Provides in-depth information about how to monitor and manage
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS systems using various tools and Network Control
Language (NCL) commands. Explains how to set up and use event
dispatching and how to perform all day-to-day management tasks for the
local DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS node, including setting up OpenVMS
clusters, managing security, downline loading, and monitoring the
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Network Management Quick Reference Guide
Provides quick-reference information about the tools that help you
manage and monitor a DECnet-Plus network. Use this guide with the
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Network Management manual.
DECnet-Plus Network Control Language Reference
Outlines command descriptions and examples for all Network Control
Language (NCL) commands that you execute to manage, monitor, and
troubleshoot the network. Begins with an orientation chapter that
contains information about how to execute NCL commands, followed by a
command chapter for each module in the DECnet Phase V layered model.
DECnet-Plus Planning Guide
Provides configuration and planning guidelines, including namespace
planning information, to help you transition a network from the DECnet
Phase IV to DECnet Phase V architecture.
DECnet-Plus Problem Solving
Explains how to isolate and solve DECnet problems in an OpenVMS
environment that can occur while the network is in operation. Includes
information about how to perform loopback tests and how to use the
DTS/DTR utility to solve problems.
DECnet-Plus DECdns Management
Explains DECdns concepts and how to manage a DECdns distributed
namespace. Use this manual with the DECnet-Plus Planning Guide.
DECnet-Plus DECdts Management
Introduces DIGITAL Distributed Time Service (DECdts) concepts and
describes how to manage the software and system clocks.
DECnet-Plus DECdts Programming
Contains DECdts time routine reference information and describes the
time-provider interface (TPI).
DECnet-Plus OSAK Programming
Explains how to use the OSAK (OSI Applications Kernel) interface to
create OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) applications for any
supported operating system.
DECnet-Plus OSAK Programming Reference
Provides reference information on using the OSAK interface to create
OSI applications on any supported operating system.
DECnet-Plus OSAK SPI Programming Reference
Provides reference information about using the OSAK session programming
interface (SPI) to create OSI applications on any supported operating
DECnet-Plus FTAM and Virtual Terminal Use and Management
Explains how to use and manage FTAM (File Transfer, Access, and
Management) software for remote file transfer and management and VT
(Virtual Terminal) for remote login to OSI-compliant systems.
DECnet-Plus FTAM Programming
Explains how to access the FTAM protocol through DIGITAL's FTAM API
(application programming interface).
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Programming
A three-part manual. Contains information about how to design and write
an application that follows a client/server model and uses the OpenVMS
Interprocess Communication ($IPC) system service and the transparent
and nontransparent communication with the queue Input/Output ($QIO)
system service. Explains how to write programs using the OpenVMS system
services to communicate with OSI transport services. Provides
information about the Common Management Information Service (CMISE) API.
DECnet/OSI for VMS CTF Use
Explains how use the Common Trace Facility (CTF) troubleshooting tool
to collect and analyze protocol data from networking software.
DECnet/OSI for VMS X.25 Management
DECnet/OSI for VMS VAX X.25 Problem Solving
DECnet/OSI for VMS VAX P.S.I. Programming
DECnet/OSI for VMS VAX P.S.I. Programming Reference
DECnet/OSI for VMS VAX WANDD Programming
DECnet/OSI for VMS VAX P.S.I. Accounting
DECnet/OSI for VMS VAX P.S.I. X.25 Use
DECnet/OSI for VMS VAX P.S.I. X.29 Management
DECnet/OSI for VMS VAX X.25 Security
For OpenVMS VAX systems only. Provides X.25 and X.29 information for
X.25 Access and X.25 Native Mode (formerly VAX P.S.I. Access and VAX
P.S.I.). Provides information about wide area network device driver
X.25 for OpenVMS Management Guide
For OpenVMS Alpha systems only. Explains how to manage and monitor an
X.25 system using network tools.
X.25 for OpenVMS Security Guide
For OpenVMS Alpha systems only. Explains the X.25 security model and
the tasks required to set up and manage X25 security.
X.25 for OpenVMS Problem Solving
For OpenVMS Alpha systems only. Provides guidance on how to solve
problems that can occur while using an X.25 system.
|Supplemental X.25 Documentation Set (OpenVMS Alpha Systems)
X.25 for OpenVMS Accounting
Explains how to use X.25 accounting to obtain performance records and
information about how X.25 is being used.
X.25 for OpenVMS Configuration
Discusses how to configure X.25 on an OpenVMS Alpha system.
X.25 for OpenVMS Programming
Explains how to write X.25 and X.29 programs to perform network
X.25 for OpenVMS Programming Reference
Provides reference information for X.25 and X.29 programmers.
X.25 for OpenVMS Utilities
Explains how to use and manage X.25 Mail and X.29 communications.
For additional information on the DECnet-Plus products and services,
access the DIGITAL OpenVMS World Wide Web site. Use the following URL:
DIGITAL welcomes your comments on this manual or any of the DECnet-Plus
documents. Send us your comments through any of the following channels:
603 881-0120, Attention: OSSG Documentation, ZKO3-4/U08
OSSG Documentation Group, ZKO3-4/U08
110 Spit Brook Rd.
Nashua, NH 03062-2698
How To Order Additional Documentation
Use the following table to order additional documentation or
information. If you need help deciding which documentation best meets
your needs, call (800-282-6672).
The following terms are used interchangeably:
- Transition and migration
- Phase IV and DECnet Phase IV
- Phase V and DECnet Phase V
- System and node
- End system and end node
- Intermediate system and router
- Multivendor and non-DIGITAL-specific
- Link state and:
- Link state routing algorithm
- Link state protocol
- DECnet-Plus routing algorithm
- DECnet-Plus routing
- Name service and directory service
The following conventions apply to this book.
Indicates a literal example of system output or user input. In text,
indicates command names, keywords, node names, file names, directories,
utilities, and tools. On a DECnet-Plus for ULTRIX system, enter the
word or phrase in the exact case shown.
You can abbreviate command keywords to the smallest number of
characters that OpenVMS, DEC OSF/1, NCL, DECdns, DECdts, and the other
utilities accept, usually three characters.
Indicates a variable.
Indicates a new term defined either in the text or in the glossary.
Indicates that you press the return key.
Indicates that you press the control key while you press the key noted
In command format descriptions, indicates optional elements. You can
enter as many as you want.
In command format descriptions, indicates you must enter at least one
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Overview
Part I provides an overview of the transition from DECnet Phase IV to
DECnet-Plus (Phase V). It also includes an overview of what is included
with the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS base system. This section includes the
- Chapter 1 --- Introducing DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS
- Chapter 2 --- DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Components
Introducing DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS
DIGITAL's DECnet-Plus network is a family of hardware and software
products that allows DIGITAL operating systems to communicate with each
other and with systems produced by other vendors.
The DECnet-Plus network supports remote system communication, resource
sharing, and distributed processing. Network users can access resources
on any system in the network as well as the resources of other vendors'
systems on multivendor networks.
DECnet-Plus networking software provides true network independence. You
get the full functionality of DECnet Phase IV, as well as DECnet
enhancements plus full TCP/IP compatibility and OSI functionality.
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS is DIGITAL's OpenVMS implementation of:
- The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications
specifications, as defined by the International Organization for
- DIGITAL's communications architecture, DIGITAL Network Architecture
(DNA) Phase V, which is also backward compatible with the Phase IV
Phase V integrates the DNA and OSI layers. The DNA Phase V reference
model is the architectural model on which DECnet-Plus networking
implementations are based. DECnet-Plus also includes support for the
internet standards RFC 1006 and RFC 1859, which allow you to run OSI
and DECnet Phase IV applications over TCP/IP.
Table 1-1 shows the changes that have evolved with each new phase.
Table 1-1 DNA Phases
Limited to two nodes
Up to 32 nodes: file transfer, remote file access, task-to-task
programming interfaces, network management
Up to 255 nodes: adaptive routing, downline loading, record access
Up to 64,449 nodes: Ethernet local area networks, area routing, host
services, OpenVMS Cluster support
Virtually unlimited number of systems: OSI protocol support,
transparent transport level links to TCP/IP, multivendor networking,
local or distributed name service, distributed network management
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS integrates DECnet and OSI network protocols
which provides continued support for DECnet applications and enables
support for OSI applications on OpenVMS. With separate TCP/IP software
running on the same system, DECnet-Plus supports a multivendor,
multiprotocol network environment. DECnet applications can be run over
NSP, CLNP, or TCP/IP transports. OSI applications can be run over CLNP
or TCP/IP transports.
A full implementation of the DIGITAL Network Architecture (DNA) Phase V
for OpenVMS systems, the OSI component of the DECnet-Plus software, is
implemented in accordance with the current U.S. and UK GOSIP
requirements. GOSIP is the Government OSI Profile that defines OSI
capabilities required by government procurement.
Chapter 3 contains more conceptual information on the OSI Reference
Model, OSI terminology (protocols, stacks, dialogues, entities,
services), and how each specific layer relates to DECnet-Plus for
1.1 Preparing for a Migration to DECnet-Plus
A number of automated tools (DECnet migration utilities and the NCP
Emulator) and simplified configuration procedures are available to help
you migrate to DECnet-Plus.
The complexity of the transition from Phase IV to Phase V architecture
varies depending on the complexity of your existing network. In
general, the smaller the network, the easier the transition. For larger
networks, more planning is required. Nevertheless, whether your network
is large or small, you can accomplish the transition without disrupting
DECnet-Plus now supports the fast configuration option, which a system
or network manager can use to configure DECnet-Plus quickly on an
OpenVMS system by invoking the net$configure.com procedure.
With the Fast Configuration option, you can configure a Phase IV system
for network connectivity by answering a few questions. This feature is
useful when you upgrade a DECnet Phase IV node to a DECnet-Plus node at
some time in the future.
For information about how to configure your network using the Fast
Configuration option, see the DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS Installation
and Basic Configuration manual.
1.1.1 Differences Between DECnet Phase IV and DECnet-Plus Phase V
DECnet-Plus is the implementation of the fifth phase of the
DIGITAL Network Architecture (DNA). Phase V integrates the Open System
Interconnection (OSI) protocols with DECnet protocols. In addition,
Phase V includes support for the Internet standard RFC 1006 and the
Internet draft RFC 1859, allowing OSI and DECnet applications to run
over TCP/IP. Thus, applications that use DECnet-Plus can communicate
with peer OSI and DECnet applications on any DECnet Phase IV-based
system or OSI-based system, whether from DIGITAL or from other vendors.
The addition of the OSI protocols and the TCP/IP communications
capability is, therefore, the primary difference between DECnet Phase
IV and DECnet-Plus Phase V. There are, however, other differences.
DECnet-Plus contains many features designed to enhance networking
capabilities. These new features include:
- Global naming/directory services --- In large networks, the number
of nodes and users makes it difficult to manage any form of local
directory service. Global (or distributed) name services allow large
networks to easily store, manage, and access addressing information for
(potentially) millions of network objects, such as end systems, users,
printers, files, and disks. With the explosion of PCs as the desktop
device of choice, networks containing millions of nodes have become a
- Optional local naming/directory services --- Smaller networks do
not have as critical a need for global directory services.
- Expanded network management capabilities via the Network Control
Language (NCL) --- As networks become more complex, the management of
networks has also become more complex. NCL enables network managers to
access a wide range of manageable entities in the network for a wide
range of management tasks.
- An improved routing algorithm (link state routing) --- The larger a
network becomes, the more overhead is generated by passing routing
information between routers and between routers and end systems. Link
state routing provides a more efficient algorithm for passing routing
information while keeping the overhead traffic to a minimum. Link state
routing is supported only on dedicated routers.
- Host-based routing --- You can configure your network to enable
host-based routing using the routing vector protocol. Host-based
routing allows an OpenVMS system to operate as a DECnet-Plus
intermediate system (IS). This feature is useful for those
configurations where you need to route from a local area network (LAN)
to a wide area network (WAN) and want to use an existing system to do
the routing rather than investing in a dedicated router.
- Increased addressing --- Networks can now grow to include
potentially millions of nodes. DECnet-Plus uses the OSI standard
address format. This format is designed to allow each node in a
universal network to have a unique address. In other words, networks
can now grow well beyond the bounds of any other addressing format
currently in use. Existing Phase IV addresses can continue to be used
for upgraded systems. The Phase IV address is moved into the OSI
- Address autoconfiguration --- DECnet-Plus nodes can take advantage
of the address autoconfiguration feature where the adjacent router
configures the node address for you.
- Single installation/configuration for OSI components --- X.25, the
Wide Area Device Drivers (WANDD), FTAM and Virtual Terminal (VT)
applications are included in the DECnet-Plus H-Kit.
To fully benefit from these enhancements, you may need to make changes
to your network. Prior to upgrading from DECnet Phase IV to
DECnet-Plus, you must make certain decisions:
- Network addressing --- Will users on the DECnet-Plus network have
the ability to communicate with users on other OSI networks, either
through electronic mail, EDI, FTAM, VTP, or other internetwork
utilities? If yes, you must obtain a unique network identifier (IDP)
from an authorized authority such as ANSI. If not, a default IDP is
provided with DECnet-Plus that you can use at
- Name services --- Will name services be provided locally to each
node or distributed throughout the network? Larger networks can benefit
greatly from a distributed name service. The local service option is
similar to Phase IV.
- DNA Phase V architecture has an overall management architecture
called the Enterprise Management Architecture (EMA).
EMA defines a framework for the management of heterogeneous,
multivendor distributed computing environments and the communications
facilities that link them. EMA covers the entire distributed system,
not just the communications aspects. The enterprise network comprises
communication networks, computing systems, databases, and applications.
In conformance with EMA, DECnet-Plus provides distributed network
management facilities that allow you to manage the network both in a
local and distributed manner. The network management design is based on
the director-entity framework and models defined by EMA. For an
introduction to DECnet-Plus network management, see Section 3.10.
- The DECnet-Plus network management protocol is based on DNA
Common Management Information Protocol (DNA CMIP)
draft standard for network management operations. CMIP is used for
encoding network management operations that can be performed on an
entity. CMIP permits the exchange of information between a director and
an agent. CMIP supersedes the Phase IV Network Information and Control
Exchange (NICE) protocol.
DECnet-Plus for OpenVMS provides a callable interface for
management operations. This interface, the CMIP Management Listener
(CML), consists of CML$ run-time routines. CML$ routines perform the
encoding of management data into CMIP and the decoding of data from
CMIP, as well as interfacing to the entities.
DECnet Phase IV
applications that have been written to create logical links to the
Phase IV Network Management Listener (NML) and then parse the returned
NICE protocol messages are not supported for managing DECnet-Plus for
OpenVMS systems. To run on a network composed of DECnet-Plus systems,
those applications must be rewritten to use DECnet-Plus network
management software and protocols, such as CML and CMIP.