HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
OpenVMS User's Manual
$ DIR_NAME = F$ENVIRONMENT("DEFAULT") $ SET DEFAULT DISK4:[TEST] . . . $ SET DEFAULT 'DIR_NAME'
$! Redirect the output of the SHOW DEFAULT command to a file. $ DEFINE/SUPERVISOR_MODE SYS$OUTPUT DISK4:[TEST]TEMPFILE.DAT $ SHOW DEFAULT $ DEASSIGN SYS$OUTPUT $! $ OPEN/READ DIR_FILE DISK4:[TEST]TEMPFILE.DAT ! Open the file. $ READ DIR_FILE DIR_NAME, ! Read the file. $ SET DEFAULT 'DIR_NAME' ! Reset the directory. $ CLOSE DIR_FILE ! Close the file. $ DELETE DISK4:[TEST]TEMPFILE.DAT;* ! Delete the file.
You often change process characteristics for the duration of a command procedure and then restore them. You can use the following lexical functions to obtain information about your process:
|F$DIRECTORY||Returns the current default directory string.|
|F$ENVIRONMENT||Returns information about the command environment for your process.|
|F$GETJPI||Returns accounting, status, and identification information about your process or about other processes on the system.|
|F$MODE||Shows the mode in which your process is executing.|
|F$PRIVILEGE||Indicates whether your process has the specified privileges.|
|F$PROCESS||Returns the name of your process.|
|F$SETPRV||Sets the specified privileges. This function also indicates whether the specified privileges were previously enabled before you used the F$SETPRV function.|
|F$USER||Returns your user identification code (UIC).|
|F$VERIFY||Indicates whether verification is on or off.|
The following table shows process characteristics that are commonly changed in command procedures. It also gives the lexical functions that save these characteristics and the DCL commands that restore the original settings.
|Characteristic||Operation||Command or Lexical Function|
|Privileges||Save||F$PRIVILEGE or F$SETPRV|
|Restore||F$SETPRV or SET PROCESS/PRIVILEGES|
|Verification||Save||F$VERIFY or F$ENVIRONMENT|
|Restore||F$VERIFY or SET VERIFY|
If you save process characteristics, you must ensure that an error or
Ctrl/Y interruption does not cause the procedure to exit before you
restore the original characteristics. (See Chapter 15 for more
information on handling errors and Ctrl/Y interruptions.)
17.2.1 Changing Verification Settings
There are two types of verification:
By default, the SET [NO]VERIFY command and the F$VERIFY function turn both types of verification on or off. In general, the procedure and image verification settings in a procedure are the same (both on or both off). However, if you decide to change the settings, save each verification setting separately.
In the following example, the symbol TEMP is used to enable and disable verification:
$ ! Enable verification $ ! $ TEMP = F$VERIFY(1) $ LOOP: $ INQUIRE FILE "File name" $ IF FILE .EQS."" THEN EXIT $ PRINT 'FILE' $ GOTO LOOP $ ! Disable verification $ ! $ TEMP = F$VERIFY(0) $ EXIT
In the following example, the verification settings are saved:
$ ! Save each verification state $ ! Turn both states off $ SAVE_VERIFY_IMAGE = F$ENVIRONMENT("VERIFY_IMAGE") $ SAVE_VERIFY_PROCEDURE = F$VERIFY(0) . . . $ ! Restore original verification states $ SAVE_VERIFY_IMAGE = F$VERIFY(SAVE_VERIFY_PROCEDURE,- SAVE_VERIFY_IMAGE)
The F$ENVIRONMENT function returns the current image verification setting and assigns this value to the symbol SAVE_VERIFY_IMAGE. Next, the F$VERIFY function returns the current procedure verification setting and assigns this value to the symbol SAVE_VERIFY_PROCEDURE. The F$VERIFY function disables both image and procedure verification. You can use the F$ENVIRONMENT function to obtain the procedure verification setting before you disable verification with F$VERIFY. However, it is shorter to use F$VERIFY to accomplish both tasks in one command line, as shown in the previous example.
If you are using time-stamping, remember that it applies only if verification is enabled. For more information on time-stamping and the SET PREFIX command, see the OpenVMS DCL Dictionary or refer to DCL help.
You may want to change the default file protection within a command procedure. The following command procedure changes the default protection associated with files created while the procedure is executing. The procedure restores the original default file protection before terminating.
$ SAVE_PROT = F$ENVIRONMENT("PROTECTION") $ SET PROTECTION = (SYSTEM:RWED, OWNER:RWED, GROUP, WORLD)/DEFAULT . . . $ SET PROTECTION=('SAVE_PROT')/DEFAULT $ EXIT
Note that the F$ENVIRONMENT function returns the default protection
code using the syntax required by the SET PROTECTION command. This lets
you use the symbol SAVE_PROT with the SET PROTECTION command to restore
the original default file protection.
17.3 Obtaining Information About the System
You can use the following lexical functions to obtain information about the system:
|F$CONTEXT||Specifies selection criteria to use with the F$PID function. The F$CONTEXT function enables the F$PID function to obtain information about processes from any node in an OpenVMS Cluster system.|
|F$CSID||Returns an OpenVMS Cluster identification number and updates the context symbol to point to the current position in the system's OpenVMS Cluster node list.|
|F$GETQUI||Returns information about queues, batch and print jobs currently in those queues, form definitions, and characteristic definitions kept in the system job queue file.|
|F$GETSYI||Returns information about your local system or about a node in your OpenVMS Cluster system (if your system is part of an OpenVMS Cluster).|
|F$IDENTIFIER||Converts identifiers from named to numeric format or from numeric to named format.|
|F$MESSAGE||Returns the message text associated with a status code.|
|F$PID||Returns the process identification (PID) number for processes that you are allowed to examine.|
|F$TIME||Returns the current date and time.|
If your system is part of an OpenVMS Cluster environment where you can log in to many different nodes, you can set the DCL prompt to indicate which node you are currently using. To do this, include the F$GETSYI function in your login command procedure to determine the node name. Then use the SET PROMPT command to set a unique prompt for the node.
If you want to use only a portion of the node name in your prompt string, use the F$EXTRACT function to extract the appropriate characters. See Section 17.6.2 for more information on extracting characters.
In the following example, the symbol NODE is defined as FF$GETSYI("NODENAME") and then the node name is used as the prompt:
$ NODE = F$GETSYI("NODENAME") $ SET PROMPT = "''NODE'$ " . . .
You can use the F$GETQUI function to get many types of information about batch and print queues. You must have read access to the job, SYSPRV privilege, or OPER privilege to obtain information about jobs and files in queues.
The following example shows how to determine if the batch queue VAX1_BATCH is in a stopped state. The value returned is either true or false. If the queue is not stopped, the command procedure submits a job to the queue.
$ QSTOPPED = F$GETQUI("DISPLAY_QUEUE", "QUEUE_STOPPED", "VAX1_BATCH") $ IF QSTOPPED THEN GOTO NOBATCH $ SUBMIT/QUEUE=VAX1_BATCH TEST.COM $ NOBATCH: . . .
You can use the F$PID function to get the process identification (PID) number for all processes that you are allowed to examine. You can obtain PID numbers:
After you obtain a PID number, you can use the F$GETJPI function to obtain specific information about the process.
The following example shows how to obtain and display the PID numbers for the processes you are allowed to examine:
$ ! Display the time when this procedure $ ! begins executing $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT F$TIME() $ ! $ CONTEXT = "" $ START: $ ! Obtain and display PID numbers until $ ! F$PID returns a null string $ ! $ PID = F$PID(CONTEXT) $ IF PID .EQS. "" THEN EXIT $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT "Pid --- ''PID'" $ GOTO START
The system uses the symbol CONTEXT to hold a pointer into the system list of PID numbers. Each time through the loop, the system changes the pointer to locate the next PID number in the list. The procedure exits after all PID numbers have been displayed.
In the following example, the procedure displays the PID number and the UIC for each process:
$ CONTEXT = "" $ START: $ ! Obtain and display PID numbers and UICs $ ! $ PID = F$PID(CONTEXT) $ IF PID .EQS. "" THEN EXIT $ UIC = F$GETJPI(PID,"UIC") $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT "Pid --- ''PID' Uic--- ''UIC' " $ GOTO START
Note that you can shorten this command procedure by including the F$GETJPI function within the WRITE command, as follows:
$ CONTEXT = "" $ START: $ PID = F$PID(CONTEXT) $ IF PID .EQS. "" THEN EXIT $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT "Pid --- ''PID' Uic --- ''F$GETJPI(PID,"UIC")'" $ GOTO START
To obtain information about processes from any node in an OpenVMS Cluster system, use the F$CONTEXT function.
In the following example, F$CONTEXT is called three times to set up selection criteria:
$!Establish an error and Ctrl/Y handler $! $ ON ERROR THEN GOTO error $ ON CONTROL_Y THEN GOTO error $! $ ctx = "" $ temp = F$CONTEXT ("PROCESS", ctx, "NODENAME", "*","EQL") (1) $ temp = F$CONTEXT ("PROCESS", ctx, "USERNAME", "M*,SYSTEM","EQL") (2) $ temp = F$CONTEXT ("PROCESS", ctx, "CURPRIV", "SYSPRV,OPER", "ALL") (3) $! $!Loop over all processes that meet the selection criteria. $!Print the PID number and the name of the image for each process. $! $loop: (4) $ pid = F$PID(ctx) $ IF pid .EQS. "" $ THEN $ GOTO endloop $ ELSE $ image = F$GETJPI(pid,"IMAGNAME") (5) $ SHOW SYMBOL pid $ WRITE SYS$OUTPUT image (6) $ GOTO loop $ ENDIF $!The loop over the processes has ended. $! $endloop: $! $ EXIT $! $!Error handler. Clean up the context's memory with $!the CANCEL selection item keyword. $! $error: $ IF F$TYPE(ctx) .eqs. "PROCESS_CONTEXT" THEN - (7) -$ temp = F$CONTEXT ("PROCESS", ctx, "CANCEL") (8) $! $ EXIT
As you examine the example, note the following:
You can use the following lexical functions to obtain information about files and devices:
|F$DEVICE||Returns the device names of all devices on a system that meet the specified selection criteria|
|F$FILE_ATTRIBUTES||Returns information about file attributes|
|F$GETDVI||Returns information about a specified device|
|F$PARSE||Parses a file specification and returns the requested field or fields|
|F$SEARCH||Searches a directory for a file|
To get information on a particular device by using the system service $GETDVI, you must provide the device name to the service. If you do not know the device name, you can find it by using the lexical function F$DEVICE.
The F$DEVICE function allows wildcard searches based on the device name, the device class, or the device type. To do a search based on device type, you must also specify a device class.
You can use the F$DEVICE function in a loop in a command procedure to return device names that match the specified selection criteria. Each time the F$DEVICE function is executed, it returns the next device on the system that matches the selection criteria. Note that devices are returned in no particular order. After the last device name is returned, the next F$DEVICE function call returns a null string.
This command procedure displays the device names of all the RA60s on a unit numbered 0:
$ START: $ DEVICE_NAME = F$DEVICE("*0:","DISK","RA60") $ IF DEVICE_NAME .EQS. "" THEN EXIT $ SHOW SYMBOL DEVICE_NAME $ GOTO START
Before processing a file, a command procedure should use the F$SEARCH function to test whether the file exists. For example, the following command procedure uses F$PARSE to apply a device and directory string to the file STATS.DAT. Then the procedure uses the F$SEARCH function to determine whether STATS.DAT is present in DISK3:[JONES.WORK]. If it is, the command procedure processes the file. Otherwise, the command procedure prompts for another input file.
$ FILE = F$PARSE("STATS.DAT","DISK3:[JONES.WORK]",,,"SYNTAX_ONLY") $ IF F$SEARCH(FILE) .EQS. "" THEN GOTO GET_FILE $ PROCESS_FILE: . . . $ GET_FILE: $ INQUIRE FILE "File name" $ GOTO PROCESS_FILE
After determining that a file exists, the procedure can use the F$PARSE or the F$FILE_ATTRIBUTES function to get additional information about the file. For example:
$ IF F$SEARCH("STATS.DAT") .EQS. "" THEN GOTO GET_FILE $ PROCESS_FILE: $ NAME = F$PARSE("STATS.DAT",, "NAME") . . . $ GET_FILE: $ INQUIRE FILE "File name" $ GOTO PROCESS_FILE