HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
OpenVMS User's Manual
13.3.7 Creating Multiple Logical Names for the Same Object
By using multiple DEFINE commands, you can create multiple logical names that refer to the same object. For example, the following commands equate the logical names $TERMINAL and CONSOLE to the physical name of a terminal, so that both logical names translate to the same device (LTA69):
13.4 Deleting Logical Names
To delete a logical name, use the DEASSIGN command. When you define logical names in your process and job logical name tables, they are not deleted until your process terminates or they are explicitly deleted by user actions. However, if you specify the /USER_MODE qualifier to the DEFINE command, the logical name is defined in the process logical name table and deleted automatically after executing the next command image.
To delete a logical name ending with a colon, specify two colons. The
DEASSIGN command, like the ASSIGN command, removes one colon before it
searches the logical name table for a match.
When the system reads a file specification or device name in a DCL command line, it examines the file specification or device name to see whether the leftmost component is a logical name. If the leftmost component ends with a colon, space, comma, or a line terminator (for example, Return), the system attempts to translate it as a logical name. If the leftmost component ends with any other character, the system does not attempt to translate it as a logical name.
After you enter the command shown in the following example, the system checks to see whether PUP is a logical name because PUP is the leftmost component of the file specification. Because the leftmost component is terminated with Return, the system attempts to translate PUP.
After you enter the command shown in the next example, the system checks whether DISK is a logical name. The system attempts to translate DISK because it is the leftmost component and ends with a colon. The system does not check PUP:
In the third example, the system does not try to translate [DRYSDALE]PUP because the leftmost component ends with a right square bracket (]):
13.5.1 Iterative Translation
Logical name translation can be iterative: after the system translates a logical name, it repeats the translation process for any logical names it finds contained within the first logical name.
The system limits the number of levels to which it performs logical name translation. The number of levels varies among system facilities but it is at least nine. If you define more than the system-determined number of levels or if you create a circular definition, an error occurs when the logical name is used.
In the following example, the first DEFINE command equates the logical name DISK to the device name DUA1. The second DEFINE command equates the logical name MEMO to the file specification DISK:[JEFF.MEMOS]COMPLAINT.TXT:
When the system translates the logical name MEMO, it finds the equivalence string DISK:[JEFF.MEMOS]COMPLAINT.TXT. It then checks to see whether the leftmost component in this file specification ends in a colon, a space, a comma, or an end-of-line terminator. It finds a colon after DISK. The system translates that logical name also. The final translation of the file specification is:
13.5.2 Missing Fields Filled in with System Defaults
When the system translates a logical name, it fills in any missing fields in a file specification with the current default device, directory, and version number. When you use a logical name to specify the input file for a command, the command uses the logical name to assign a file specification to the output file as well.
If the equivalence string contains a file name and file type, the output file is given the same file name and file type. If the equivalence string does not contain a file type, a default file type is supplied. The file type supplied depends on the command you are using.
In the following example, because a device name is not specified for the logical name HIG, the device name for MAL defines DBA1 as the temporary default device:
The PRINT command looks for the following files:
13.5.3 Default Search Order for Logical Name Translations
Identical logical names can exist in more than one logical name table. When the system translates a logical name in a file specification, it searches a list of logical name tables until it finds a match. The system uses the first match it finds.
The list of logical name tables that are searched is specified in the definition of the logical name LNM$FILE_DEV. The default list consists of the process, job, group, system, and clusterwide system logical name tables. The search order is the same (process, job, group, system, and clusterwide system).
Use the SHOW LOGICAL command to display logical names and their equivalence strings.
Sometimes the definition of a logical name includes another logical name. The SHOW LOGICAL command performs iterative translations. It then displays both the equivalence string and the level of translation. Level numbers are zero based; that is, 0 is the first level, 1 is the second, and so on. To display only the first translation found for a specified logical name, use the SHOW TRANSLATION command. (For more information, refer to the OpenVMS DCL Dictionary.)
If you use the SHOW LOGICAL command to determine the equivalence string for a process-permanent file (see Section 13.13), the command displays only the device portion of the string. For example:
In the following example, the logical name MYDISK is displayed. Two translations are performed; the number 1 indicates the second level of translation:
In the next example, the equivalence string for the logical name WORKFILE is displayed:
The system displays the logical name, its translation, and the name of
the table that contains the logical name.
By default, the SHOW LOGICAL command searches your process, job, group, system, and clusterwide system tables and displays all matches. However, you can specify a particular logical name table to be searched using the /TABLE qualifier. You can also use the /GROUP, /SYSTEM, /JOB, and /PROCESS qualifiers to display the logical names in the group, system, job, and process logical name tables, respectively.
In the following example, the SHOW LOGICAL command, using the /TABLE qualifier, displays the logical names in the process logical name table (LNM$PROCESS):
13.6.2 Displaying Translation Attributes and Access Modes
To display translation attributes and access modes of logical names, use the SHOW LOGICAL/FULL command, as follows:
This example displays the logical name SYS$ERROR in executive mode and
shows the translation attribute, terminal.
When a logical name is equated to several equivalence strings in a single DEFINE (or ASSIGN) command, a search list is created.
When you use a search list in a file specification, the search list is translated as follows:
The system translates the logical name, in the order in which you specified the equivalence strings, until it finds a match.
The command affects only the first file found. At that point, the search ends. If a match is not found, the system reports an error only on the last file it attempts to find.
In the following example, the logical name GETTYSBURG is a search list:
In the next example, the TYPE command searches the equivalence string [JONES.HISTORY] before it searches [JONES.WORKFILES] (the order specified in the preceding logical name definition for GETTYSBURG):
Once the TYPE command finds a file named SPEECH.TXT, it ends the search
and displays the file.
You can use a search list with a command that accepts wildcards. When you use wildcards, the system forms file specifications by using each equivalence string in the search list. The command operates on each file specification that identifies an existing file.
In the following example, the DIRECTORY command is specified with a wildcard character in the version field. It finds all versions of SPEECH.TXT in the search list defined by GETTYSBURG:
When you enter a search list (for example, using the DIRECTORY command), the operating system uses elements in one part of the list to supply parts of the file specification that are omitted from other parts of the list. If a file specification is not complete (as shown by SYS$LOGIN in the following example), command lines can produce multiple files and file-not-found conditions:
You can avoid producing multiple files and file-not-found conditions by placing a semicolon after the file specification, as shown:
13.7.2 Using a Search List with the SET DEFAULT Command
When you specify a search list as the first part of the parameter for the SET DEFAULT command, the system assigns the search list name, untranslated, to SYS$DISK. (SYS$DISK is a logical name that translates to your default disk.) Note that when you specify a search list as the first part of a parameter for the SET DEFAULT command, each equivalence string in the search list must contain a device name.
In the following example, both a device and a directory are specified; thus, both are used to construct the file specifications:
This command displays the following list of files:
In the following example, the SHOW DEFAULT command shows the default disk and directory as DISK2:[MEATBALL.SUB]. Next, the search list FIFI is defined. The SET DEFAULT command uses the search list as its parameter. The second use of the SHOW DEFAULT command shows that the default directory has not changed. However, the search list FIFI is displayed as the default device along with its equivalence strings. The SHOW DEFAULT command displays the search list in the order in which the search list is evaluated by the system:
13.7.3 Using a Search List with the RUN Command
When the RUN command is followed by a search list, the system forms file specifications as described previously. However, the system then checks to see whether any of the files in the list are installed images. The system runs the first file in the search list that is an installed image. Then, the RUN command terminates.
If none of the file specifications are installed images, the system
repeats the process of forming file specifications. This time it looks
for each file specification on the disk. It runs the first file it
finds there. An error message is displayed if none of the specified
files is found either in the known file list or on the disk.
A file specification can contain more than one search list. When this occurs, each item in the file name search list is used, while the first device name is held constant. After all the items in the file name search list are combined with the first device name, they are then combined with the second device name. This process continues until each device has been searched.
You can also have iterative (nested) search lists when one name in a search list translates to another search list. If this occurs, the system uses each name in a sublist before continuing to the next upper-level name.
The following example shows a file specification that has a search list in the file name and in the device name:
The directory listing for each file name is given, first for WORK1:[ROSE] and second for WORK2:[THORN].
The following example shows iterative search lists:
The search order for the search list NESTED follows:
13.8 Logical Name Table Characteristics
A logical name table has the following characteristics:
During system initialization, several shareable logical name tables are created. When a new process is created, the system creates several other tables, shareable and process-private, for that process. All these tables are shown in Table 13-1.
The access mode of a logical name table can be specified when it is created. If not specified, the mode defaults to the access mode from which the table creation was requested, typically supervisor or user mode. A logical name table can contain logical names of its own access mode and of less privileged access modes. A logical name table can be the parent table to another table of the same or less privileged access mode.
A logical name table is identified by its name, which is itself a
logical name. As a logical name, each name table name must be contained
within a logical name table.
Two special logical name tables called directories exist as containers for logical name table names:
These directories contain names that translate iteratively to table names. All logical name table names and any logical names that translate to tables are kept in these directories.
The parent table of a logical name table is not necessarily a directory
table. That is, this hierarchical structure is distinct from the
location of logical name table names.
To display the relationship of logical name directory tables to logical name tables, enter the SHOW LOGICAL/STRUCTURE command, as shown in the following example:
This example shows the logical name table names that reside in each
logical name table directory. It also shows the relationship between
LNM$CLUSTER_TABLE and LNM$SYSCLUSTER_TABLE.
The default tables created by the executive, including the system directory and process directory tables, are shown in Table 13-1.
1The string gggggg represents a six-digit octal number containing the process's UIC group number.
2The string xxxxxxxx represents an eight-digit hexadecimal number that is the address of the job information block.