HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
OpenVMS System Manager's Manual
expiration date: The Files--11 On-Disk Structure uses
the expiration date of a file to track the use of a file. The
expiration date aids in the disposal of seldom-used files.
extent: On Files--11 volumes, contiguous blocks
allocated to a particular file.
feedback: Information, continuously collected by the
executive, about the amount of various resources the
system uses to process its work load. When run in feedback mode,
AUTOGEN analyzes this information and adjusts the values for any
related system parameters.
field: In a UAF record, a portion of the record you modify with the Authorize utility. The values you assign to each field perform the following functions:
file: On Files--11 media, an array of consecutive
virtual blocks, numbered 1 to n, plus a set of attributes with
values. A file is either a data file or a directory file. Directories
can contain both data files and directory files.
file banner page: A banner page that
separates files within a job; users can override the file banner page
settings you set for a queue.
file header: On a Files--11 volume, describes a
portion of a file on the volume. File headers contain information such
as the owner UIC, protection code,
creation date and time, and access control list (ACL).
file operation: In the Backup utility, an operation
that processes individual files or directories.
Files--11 On--Disk Structure: A logical structure
given to information stored on a disk; it is a hierarchical
organization of files, their data, and the directories needed to gain
access to them.
Files--11 volume: A disk volume that uses Files-11
On-Disk Structure and is mounted on a device.
full backup: See image backup.
full names: On VAX systems, hierarchically structured
DECnet-Plus node names that can be stored in a DECdns naming service.
Full names on VAX systems can be a maximum of 255 bytes long.
gateway: In a TCP/IP network, a computer that is
connected to two networks and routes packets from one to the other.
general timesharing service: A LAT service offering
processing resources to users in the LAN. Contrast with
generic batch queue: A generic queue that can direct jobs only to batch execution queues.
Generic batch queues are typically used in OpenVMS Cluster environments
to distribute the batch work load across several nodes.
generic output queue: A generic queue can direct jobs
to any output execution queue. Generic output queues are typically used
to distribute the output work load among several identical printers.
generic queue: A queue that holds batch or print jobs until they are transferred to an execution queue for processing.
A generic queue holds a job until an appropriate execution queue
becomes available to initiate the job. The queue
manager then requeues the job to the available execution queue.
group volume: A volume available to all the users in a
group. Compare to system volume.
header labels: On magnetic tape, labels containing
information such as the file name, creation date, and expiration date.
When you create a file on magnetic tape, the magnetic tape file system
writes header labels immediately preceding the data block. To access a
file on magnetic tape by the file name, the file system searches the
tape for the header label set that contains the specified file name.
header resident image: A known image
for which the header of the image file remains permanently resident in
memory, saving one disk I/O operation per file access.
home block: A block in a Files--11 volume that
identifies it as a Files-11 volume. Usually, the home block is the next
block after the boot block (block 0). If for some
reason the home block cannot be read (is physically unusable), an
alternative block is selected for use as the home block. This block
provides specific information about the volume and default values for
files on the volume.
host: In a TCP/IP network, each end system connected
to a TCP/IP network. Each host has a unique name and address. The local
host is the system you are using, and the remote host is the system
with which you are communicating.
identification record: A record of a file
header that contains a summary of disk and volume
IDP: See new domain part.
image: A collection of procedures and data bound
together by the Linker utility to form an executable program.
Executable programs can be executed (or run) by a process. Usually,
executable programs have the file type .EXE.
image backup: Also called a full backup. A Backup
utility operation that saves a copy of all the files on a disk (or
volume) to a special file called a save set. See also
image compare: A Backup utility operation that
compares the contents of entire volumes.
image copy: A Backup utility operation that creates a
new Files--11 On-Disk Structure on the output disk and copies an entire
volume; the image backup is a logical duplicate of the contents of the
image operation: A Backup utility operation that
processes all files on the input disk.
image registry: A file associated with the Image
Registry facility. To continue using a compatible application image
that depends on a previous operating system version, you can register
the image in the Image Registry.
image restore: A Backup utility operation that
initializes the output disk and restores an entire volume.
incremental backup: A Backup utility operation that
saves only those files that have been created or modified since the
most recent backup that was performed using the /RECORD qualifier. (The
/RECORD qualifier records the date and time that the files are backed
incremental restore: A Backup utility operation that
restores an incremental save set.
InfoServer system: An Ethernet-based,
high-performance, virtual device server. The
InfoServer system can serve physical device media and sets of logical
disk blocks to client systems in a local area network (LAN). Systems
running the appropriate client software can connect to virtual devices
served by the InfoServer system and use them as though they are locally
initialization file: In certain utilities, a file used
each time you invoke the utility. In the initialization file, you can
perform tasks such as defining keys and setting up your environment.
installation procedure: The procedure for installing
the operating system for the first time. Also, a procedure for
installing a layered product.
IRG (interrecord gap): On magnetic tape, the interval
of space between blocks.
job banner pages: banner pages that
identify jobs; users cannot override job banner pages that you set for
a queue. Compare with file banner pages.
job controller: The system process that creates a
process to perform the tasks in a batch job.
job scheduling priority: A priority value that the
system uses to schedule batch or print jobs in a queue. Job scheduling
priorities range from a low of 0 to a high of 255. Compare with
base process priority.
kernel mode: The most privileged processor
access mode. The operating system's most privileged
services, such as I/O drivers and the pager, run in kernel mode. When
in kernel mode, the processor has complete control of, and
responsibility for, the system.
key processes: Processes that are dumped immediately
following PT, S0/S1, and S2, including transition pages that link back.
The system manager can designate additional processes to be treated as
key processes. Key processes have priority over other processes in a
dump, thus ensuring that the selected processes are successfully
written when the dump file is too small to contain all processes.
known file list: An internal data structure on which
the system defines known images. Each entry in the
known file list identifies the file name of the known image and the
attributes with which it was installed.
known image: An image installed with the Install
utility (INSTALL). When you install an image, the image is assigned
attributes and becomes known to the system.
LASTport protocol: A specialized LAN transport protocol, implemented by the InfoServer software, that allows many clients to access InfoServer systems and perform reliable device read and write operations.
The LASTport/DISK protocol and LASTport/TAPE protocol are specialized disk and tape protocols that use the LASTport protocol.
See also InfoServer system.
LAT protocol: Protocol, implemented by the LAT
software, that allows the operating system to offer resources, or LAT
services that terminal servers can access.
LAT service announcements: Multicast messages sent by
LAT service nodes and used to create a database of
service nodes available.
LAT service node: A system that supports incoming LAT
connections or a system that offers LAT services.
LAT services: Computing resources made available to
users in the LAN through the LAT software. A LAT service can be a
general timesharing service or an application
level 1 router: In a network, a node that performs
routing operations within a single area. Compare with level 2
level 2 router: In a network, a node that performs
routing operations between areas and within its own area. Also called
an area router. Compare with level 1
license: Many software vendors provide software to their customers under an agreement called a license. Although the term license can have specific legal connotations, for the purpose of this manual a license refers to the authorization you have to use a product.
The License Management facility (LMF) lets you register, manage, and
track software licenses on line. See also Product Authorization
lines: In a network, physical data paths that connect adjacent nodes. Communications lines connect your computer to the DECnet network.
In a TCP/IP network, a line is the physical path over which data can
pass from one host to another.
load address: The location in memory (specified in
hexadecimal notation) to which the system loads the bootstrap
Local Area VAXcluster configuration: A VAXcluster
configuration in which a single VAX computer serves as the management
center of the cluster, plus one or more VAX computers that are
connected to this hub.
local cluster: In the System Management utility
(SYSMAN), the node from which you are executing SYSMAN.
local node: In a network, the node on which you are working.
In the System Management utility (SYSMAN), the node on which you execute SYSMAN.
Contrast with remote node.
logical block: Organizational unit of volume space.
logical block numbering: Begins with the first byte in
the volume space and continues in a sequentially ascending order
through the remainder of the volume space.
logical link: In a network, connects two processes and
carries a stream of two-way communications traffic between the
processes over a circuit. A single circuit established
between two nodes can support many logical links concurrently.
logical name table: A table containing definitions of
systemwide logical names that can be used by any process in the system.
logical queue: A special type of generic output queue
that transfers print jobs to another output execution queue. You might
use this kind of queue to temporarily redirect a queue when the device
on which it runs is broken.
logical sector: Organizational unit of a volume; consists of one or more physical sectors. No more than one logical sector can begin in any physical sector.
Logical sectors are numbered in ascending order, with 0 assigned to the
logical sector having the lowest physical address containing recorded
data. Each logical sector includes a data field made up of 2048 or more
bytes (the number of bytes always equals a power of 2).
login command procedure: A command procedure that
executes each time a user logs in. Add commands to a login command
procedure to execute commands when a user logs in, for example, to set
up the user environment.
login (LGI) system parameters: System parameters that
control login functions. The names of these system parameters begin
loopback tests: In a network, a series of tests to
help determine whether the network is operating properly.
lost file: A file that is not linked to a directory.
When you delete a directory file (a file with the file type .DIR)
without first deleting its subordinate files, the files referred to by
that directory become lost files. Lost files are a nonproductive use of
disk space and act as debits against a user's disk
Magnetic Tape Ancillary Control Process (MTACP): The
internal software process of the operating system that interprets the
logical format of standard labeled tape volumes.
maintenance release: A release of the operating system
that is applied with an update procedure.
managers: Devices on the network through which
management is done using the Extensible Simple Network Management
Protocol (eSNMP). Managers exchange information with master
agents or subagents, which are devices such as routers and
servers on the network being managed.
mandatory update: A software update that is required
immediately after upgrading or installing the operating system.
mass storage control protocol (MSCP) server: In an
OpenVMS Cluster environment, the component that implements the MSCP
protocol, which is used to communicate with a controller for DSA disks,
such as RA-series disks. In conjunction with one or both of the disk
class device drivers (DUDRIVER, DSDRIVER), the MSCP
server implements this protocol on a computer, allowing the computer to
function as a storage controller.
master agents: Devices such as routers and servers on
the network being managed (using the Extensible Simple Network
Management Protocol (eSNMP)). Master agents or subagents exchange
information with managers, which are the devices on
the network through which the management is done.
master file directory (MFD): The file that contains
the name of all user file directories on a disk.
media: The physical substance on which you can store
mount verification: A recovery mechanism for disk and
tape operations. If a device goes off line or is
write-locked while mount verification is enabled, you
can correct the problem and continue the operation.
multivolume file: A file that is continued on another
volume when the data blocks of a file or related files do not
physically fit on one volume (a reel of magnetic tape).
network: A means of connecting computers that allows
them to share or transfer information or communications. A network
includes two or more computers that are connected, and the hardware and
software that makes those connections.
network proxy account: A user account that allows
users on a remote node in a network to access data by
way of a local account on your system. Proxy accounts are useful when
you want to grant one or more users on a remote node access to specific
files but you do not want to give them a private account on your system.
new domain part (IDP): Unique network identifier that
allows users on a DECnet-Plus network to communicate with users on
other OSI networks, either through electronic mail, EDI, FTAM, VTP, or
other internetwork utilities.
node: In a network, a computer system that is
connected to another system in a network---by means of cables,
telephone lines, microwave and satellite links, for example.
nonlocal cluster: In the System Management utility
(SYSMAN), any cluster other than the one from which you are executing
nonlocal environment: In the System Management utility
(SYSMAN), your environment when you are not working on your local node
or within your own cluster.
nonstop boot: The most common booting operation. You
perform a nonstop boot if you do not want to stop to perform special
operations---for example, to change system parameter values---before
booting. Contrast with conversational boot.
object: In a network, a process to which a logical link connects. Some objects are DECnet programs---for example, the Mail object; other objects are user-written programs.
For two programs to communicate over the network, the source program on
the local node establishes a logical link with the
object on the remote node.
OPCOM messages: Messages broadcast by the Operator
Communication Manager (OPCOM). These messages are displayed on
operator terminals and written to the operator
log file. The messages might be general messages that you
send, user requests, operator replies, or system events.
OPCOM process: The system process that manages
Operator Communication Manager (OPCOM) operations.
OpenVMS Cluster system: A loosely coupled
configuration of two or more computers and storage subsystems. An
OpenVMS Cluster system appears as a single system to the user, even
though it shares some or all of the system resources. When a group of
computers shares resources in an OpenVMS Cluster environment, the
storage and computing resources of all the computers are combined,
which can increase the processing power.
operator log file: The Operator Communication Manager
(OPCOM) records messages in this file. The file is named
operator terminals: Terminals designated to display
messages broadcast by the Operator Communication Manager (OPCOM).
Usually, the console terminal (with the device name OPA0:) is the
operator terminal. However, you can designate any user terminal as an
output execution queue: A queue that accepts jobs for
processing by a symbiont. The queue
manager sends the symbiont a list of files, which the user
defines when submitting the job. An output symbiont transfers data from
a disk to an output device. As the symbiont processes each file, it
produces output for the device it controls, such as a printer or a
owner UIC: Used with UIC-based
protection, usually the UIC of the person who created a file
page: A unit used for allocating and deallocating memory.
On VAX systems, a page is 512 bytes.
On Alpha systems, a page can be 8 kilobytes (KB) (8192 bytes), 16KB,
32KB, or 64KB. The initial set of Alpha computers uses a page size of
8192 bytes. Compare with pagelet.
page file: In a paging operation, the
file to which the system writes paged portions of memory. Your
distribution kit includes a page file named SYS$SYSTEM:PAGEFILE.SYS. If
necessary, SYS$SYSTEM:PAGEFILE.SYS can be used in place of the system
crash dump file.
pagelet: On Alpha systems, a unit of memory in a
512-byte quantity. One Alpha pagelet is the same size as one VAX page.
Also, on an Alpha 8KB computer, 16 Alpha pagelets equal 1 Alpha page.
page setup module: A device control
module inserted at the beginning of each page of a print job.
paging: A memory management operation to efficiently
use the physical memory allotted to a process by moving information
between physical memory and files stored on disk. In paging, the system
moves infrequently used portions of a process workspace out of physical
memory to a file. Compare with swapping.
PAK: See Product Authorization Key
partition: A logical subset of a read/write disk. A
single disk can be subdivided into several partitions, each of which of
which can be used independently. The partitions appear to be whole
permanent database: In a network, a permanent copy of
the DECnet configuration database. When you start the
network, the permanent database provides the initial values for the
volatile database. Changes remain after the network is
shut down, but do not affect the current system.
permanently open image: A known image
where directory information on the image file remains permanently
resident in memory, eliminating the usual directory search required to
locate a file.
physical dump: A crash dump
containing the entire contents of physical memory to the system
dump file. Compare with selective dump.
physical operation: In the Backup utility, an
operation that copies, saves, restores, or compares an entire volume by
logical blocks, ignoring any file structure.
physical sector: Division of a system or data area;
smallest addressable unit on an ISO 9660 CD-ROM.
primary bootstrap image: Program that the boot block points to, which allows access to the system disk by finding the the secondary bootstrap image, SYSBOOT.EXE, and loading it into memory.
On VAX systems, the primary bootstrap image is VMB.EXE.
On Alpha systems, the primary bootstrap image is APB.EXE.
primary page and swap files: The default page
file and swap file provided with your
distribution kit. These files are named SYS$SYSTEM:PAGEFILE.SYS and
SYS$SYSTEM:SWAPFILE.SYS. Contrast with secondary page and swap
primary processor: In a multiprocessing system, the
processor that is either logically or physically attached to the
console device and is the target of the console commands that bootstrap
the multiprocessing system. The primary processor is responsible for
starting other processors in the multiprocessing system. It also serves
as the system timekeeper.
print forms: You can use print forms with output queues to determine certain page formatting attributes (such as margins and page length). In addition, the paper stock specified in a form determines whether a job is printed; if the stock of a job's form does not match the stock of the form mounted on the queue, the job is not printed.
Compaq supplies a default print form named DEFAULT. You can create
additional forms if users need help formatting output, or if certain
print jobs require special paper.
print job: An entry in an output queue that specifies
a file or files to be printed on a printer. The user defines the file
or files to be printed when submitting the job. When a printer is
available, the queue manager sends the file to a
symbiont for formatting and printing.
printer queue: A type of output execution queue that
uses a symbiont to direct output to a printer. Compare
with server queue and terminal queue.
priority: See base process priority
or job scheduling priority.
private volume: A file-structured disk volume that
contains only private files.
privileged image: A known image where
increased privileges are temporarily assigned to any
process running the image, permitting the process to exceed its user
authorization file (UAF) privilege restrictions during execution of the
image. In this way, users with normal privileges can run programs that
require higher-than-normal privileges.
privileges: A means of restricting the functions users
are authorized to perform on the system. System managers require
privileges that are denied to most users.
process limits and quotas: User authorization file
(UAF) parameters you can set for a user account to control the usage of
system resources by processes in that account. (UAF parameters are
different than system parameters.) You set values for process limits
and quotas using the Authorize utility.
Product Authorization Key (PAK): Information,
typically on a piece of paper, provided for many Compaq products. The
data provided in the PAK allows you to register a software
license in the license database on a system.
product configuration file (PCF): Optional POLYCENTER
Software Installation utility file that might be supplied by the
software manufacturer, or you can create it. A PCF contains responses
to some or all of the installation questions for a product. It can
provide default or required choices, which might differ from the
default choices provided in the PDF.
product database (PDB): Database that is created
automatically by the POLYCENTER Software Installation utility. When
products are installed, the files and other objects that make up the
product, such as directories and accounts, are recorded in the PDB. The
configuration choices made during installation are also recorded.
product description file (PDF): File provided by the
software manufacturer containing all the information the POLYCENTER
Software Installation utility needs for installing either a software
product or a set of software products.
product text file (PTF): POLYCENTER Software
Installation utility file that is optionally supplied by the software
manufacturer. It provides information about the product including
product name, producer, configuration choice descriptions, and message
text used during product installation.
protected image: A known image that
is a shareable image and contains protected code.
Protected code is code that runs in kernel mode or
executive mode but that can be called by a
user mode image.
protection code: Used with UIC-based
protection, indicates who is allowed access and for what
public volume: A Files--11 volume that any user on the
system can access and that can contain both private and public files.