HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation

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OpenVMS System Manager's Manual

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expiration date: The Files--11 On-Disk Structure uses the expiration date of a file to track the use of a file. The expiration date aids in the disposal of seldom-used files.

extent: On Files--11 volumes, contiguous blocks allocated to a particular file.

feedback: Information, continuously collected by the executive, about the amount of various resources the system uses to process its work load. When run in feedback mode, AUTOGEN analyzes this information and adjusts the values for any related system parameters.

field: In a UAF record, a portion of the record you modify with the Authorize utility. The values you assign to each field perform the following functions:

  • Identify the user
  • Define the user's work environment
  • Control use of system resources

file: On Files--11 media, an array of consecutive virtual blocks, numbered 1 to n, plus a set of attributes with values. A file is either a data file or a directory file. Directories can contain both data files and directory files.

file banner page: A banner page that separates files within a job; users can override the file banner page settings you set for a queue.

file header: On a Files--11 volume, describes a portion of a file on the volume. File headers contain information such as the owner UIC, protection code, creation date and time, and access control list (ACL).

file operation: In the Backup utility, an operation that processes individual files or directories.

Files--11 On--Disk Structure: A logical structure given to information stored on a disk; it is a hierarchical organization of files, their data, and the directories needed to gain access to them.

Files--11 volume: A disk volume that uses Files-11 On-Disk Structure and is mounted on a device.

full backup: See image backup.

full names: On VAX systems, hierarchically structured DECnet-Plus node names that can be stored in a DECdns naming service. Full names on VAX systems can be a maximum of 255 bytes long.

gateway: In a TCP/IP network, a computer that is connected to two networks and routes packets from one to the other.

general timesharing service: A LAT service offering processing resources to users in the LAN. Contrast with application service.

generic batch queue: A generic queue that can direct jobs only to batch execution queues.

Generic batch queues are typically used in OpenVMS Cluster environments to distribute the batch work load across several nodes.

generic output queue: A generic queue can direct jobs to any output execution queue. Generic output queues are typically used to distribute the output work load among several identical printers.

generic queue: A queue that holds batch or print jobs until they are transferred to an execution queue for processing.

A generic queue holds a job until an appropriate execution queue becomes available to initiate the job. The queue manager then requeues the job to the available execution queue.

group volume: A volume available to all the users in a group. Compare to system volume.

header labels: On magnetic tape, labels containing information such as the file name, creation date, and expiration date. When you create a file on magnetic tape, the magnetic tape file system writes header labels immediately preceding the data block. To access a file on magnetic tape by the file name, the file system searches the tape for the header label set that contains the specified file name.

header resident image: A known image for which the header of the image file remains permanently resident in memory, saving one disk I/O operation per file access.

home block: A block in a Files--11 volume that identifies it as a Files-11 volume. Usually, the home block is the next block after the boot block (block 0). If for some reason the home block cannot be read (is physically unusable), an alternative block is selected for use as the home block. This block provides specific information about the volume and default values for files on the volume.

host: In a TCP/IP network, each end system connected to a TCP/IP network. Each host has a unique name and address. The local host is the system you are using, and the remote host is the system with which you are communicating.

identification record: A record of a file header that contains a summary of disk and volume characteristics.

IDP: See new domain part.

image: A collection of procedures and data bound together by the Linker utility to form an executable program. Executable programs can be executed (or run) by a process. Usually, executable programs have the file type .EXE.

image backup: Also called a full backup. A Backup utility operation that saves a copy of all the files on a disk (or volume) to a special file called a save set. See also image operation.

image compare: A Backup utility operation that compares the contents of entire volumes.

image copy: A Backup utility operation that creates a new Files--11 On-Disk Structure on the output disk and copies an entire volume; the image backup is a logical duplicate of the contents of the disk.

image operation: A Backup utility operation that processes all files on the input disk.

image registry: A file associated with the Image Registry facility. To continue using a compatible application image that depends on a previous operating system version, you can register the image in the Image Registry.

image restore: A Backup utility operation that initializes the output disk and restores an entire volume.

incremental backup: A Backup utility operation that saves only those files that have been created or modified since the most recent backup that was performed using the /RECORD qualifier. (The /RECORD qualifier records the date and time that the files are backed up.)

incremental restore: A Backup utility operation that restores an incremental save set.

InfoServer system: An Ethernet-based, high-performance, virtual device server. The InfoServer system can serve physical device media and sets of logical disk blocks to client systems in a local area network (LAN). Systems running the appropriate client software can connect to virtual devices served by the InfoServer system and use them as though they are locally attached devices.

initialization file: In certain utilities, a file used each time you invoke the utility. In the initialization file, you can perform tasks such as defining keys and setting up your environment.

installation procedure: The procedure for installing the operating system for the first time. Also, a procedure for installing a layered product.

IRG (interrecord gap): On magnetic tape, the interval of space between blocks.

job banner pages: banner pages that identify jobs; users cannot override job banner pages that you set for a queue. Compare with file banner pages.

job controller: The system process that creates a process to perform the tasks in a batch job.

job scheduling priority: A priority value that the system uses to schedule batch or print jobs in a queue. Job scheduling priorities range from a low of 0 to a high of 255. Compare with base process priority.

kernel mode: The most privileged processor access mode. The operating system's most privileged services, such as I/O drivers and the pager, run in kernel mode. When in kernel mode, the processor has complete control of, and responsibility for, the system.

key processes: Processes that are dumped immediately following PT, S0/S1, and S2, including transition pages that link back. The system manager can designate additional processes to be treated as key processes. Key processes have priority over other processes in a dump, thus ensuring that the selected processes are successfully written when the dump file is too small to contain all processes.

known file list: An internal data structure on which the system defines known images. Each entry in the known file list identifies the file name of the known image and the attributes with which it was installed.

known image: An image installed with the Install utility (INSTALL). When you install an image, the image is assigned attributes and becomes known to the system.

LASTport protocol: A specialized LAN transport protocol, implemented by the InfoServer software, that allows many clients to access InfoServer systems and perform reliable device read and write operations.

The LASTport/DISK protocol and LASTport/TAPE protocol are specialized disk and tape protocols that use the LASTport protocol.

See also InfoServer system.

LAT protocol: Protocol, implemented by the LAT software, that allows the operating system to offer resources, or LAT services that terminal servers can access.

LAT service announcements: Multicast messages sent by LAT service nodes and used to create a database of service nodes available.

LAT service node: A system that supports incoming LAT connections or a system that offers LAT services.

LAT services: Computing resources made available to users in the LAN through the LAT software. A LAT service can be a general timesharing service or an application service.

level 1 router: In a network, a node that performs routing operations within a single area. Compare with level 2 router.

level 2 router: In a network, a node that performs routing operations between areas and within its own area. Also called an area router. Compare with level 1 router.

license: Many software vendors provide software to their customers under an agreement called a license. Although the term license can have specific legal connotations, for the purpose of this manual a license refers to the authorization you have to use a product.

The License Management facility (LMF) lets you register, manage, and track software licenses on line. See also Product Authorization Key (PAK).

lines: In a network, physical data paths that connect adjacent nodes. Communications lines connect your computer to the DECnet network.

In a TCP/IP network, a line is the physical path over which data can pass from one host to another.

load address: The location in memory (specified in hexadecimal notation) to which the system loads the bootstrap image.

Local Area VAXcluster configuration: A VAXcluster configuration in which a single VAX computer serves as the management center of the cluster, plus one or more VAX computers that are connected to this hub.

local cluster: In the System Management utility (SYSMAN), the node from which you are executing SYSMAN.

local node: In a network, the node on which you are working.

In the System Management utility (SYSMAN), the node on which you execute SYSMAN.

Contrast with remote node.

logical block: Organizational unit of volume space.

logical block numbering: Begins with the first byte in the volume space and continues in a sequentially ascending order through the remainder of the volume space.

logical link: In a network, connects two processes and carries a stream of two-way communications traffic between the processes over a circuit. A single circuit established between two nodes can support many logical links concurrently.

logical name table: A table containing definitions of systemwide logical names that can be used by any process in the system.

logical queue: A special type of generic output queue that transfers print jobs to another output execution queue. You might use this kind of queue to temporarily redirect a queue when the device on which it runs is broken.

logical sector: Organizational unit of a volume; consists of one or more physical sectors. No more than one logical sector can begin in any physical sector.

Logical sectors are numbered in ascending order, with 0 assigned to the logical sector having the lowest physical address containing recorded data. Each logical sector includes a data field made up of 2048 or more bytes (the number of bytes always equals a power of 2).

login command procedure: A command procedure that executes each time a user logs in. Add commands to a login command procedure to execute commands when a user logs in, for example, to set up the user environment.

login (LGI) system parameters: System parameters that control login functions. The names of these system parameters begin with LGI.

loopback tests: In a network, a series of tests to help determine whether the network is operating properly.

lost file: A file that is not linked to a directory. When you delete a directory file (a file with the file type .DIR) without first deleting its subordinate files, the files referred to by that directory become lost files. Lost files are a nonproductive use of disk space and act as debits against a user's disk quota.

Magnetic Tape Ancillary Control Process (MTACP): The internal software process of the operating system that interprets the logical format of standard labeled tape volumes.

maintenance release: A release of the operating system that is applied with an update procedure.

managers: Devices on the network through which management is done using the Extensible Simple Network Management Protocol (eSNMP). Managers exchange information with master agents or subagents, which are devices such as routers and servers on the network being managed.

mandatory update: A software update that is required immediately after upgrading or installing the operating system.

mass storage control protocol (MSCP) server: In an OpenVMS Cluster environment, the component that implements the MSCP protocol, which is used to communicate with a controller for DSA disks, such as RA-series disks. In conjunction with one or both of the disk class device drivers (DUDRIVER, DSDRIVER), the MSCP server implements this protocol on a computer, allowing the computer to function as a storage controller.

master agents: Devices such as routers and servers on the network being managed (using the Extensible Simple Network Management Protocol (eSNMP)). Master agents or subagents exchange information with managers, which are the devices on the network through which the management is done.

master file directory (MFD): The file that contains the name of all user file directories on a disk.

media: The physical substance on which you can store data.

mount verification: A recovery mechanism for disk and tape operations. If a device goes off line or is write-locked while mount verification is enabled, you can correct the problem and continue the operation.

multivolume file: A file that is continued on another volume when the data blocks of a file or related files do not physically fit on one volume (a reel of magnetic tape).

network: A means of connecting computers that allows them to share or transfer information or communications. A network includes two or more computers that are connected, and the hardware and software that makes those connections.

network proxy account: A user account that allows users on a remote node in a network to access data by way of a local account on your system. Proxy accounts are useful when you want to grant one or more users on a remote node access to specific files but you do not want to give them a private account on your system.

new domain part (IDP): Unique network identifier that allows users on a DECnet-Plus network to communicate with users on other OSI networks, either through electronic mail, EDI, FTAM, VTP, or other internetwork utilities.

node: In a network, a computer system that is connected to another system in a network---by means of cables, telephone lines, microwave and satellite links, for example.

nonlocal cluster: In the System Management utility (SYSMAN), any cluster other than the one from which you are executing SYSMAN.

nonlocal environment: In the System Management utility (SYSMAN), your environment when you are not working on your local node or within your own cluster.

nonstop boot: The most common booting operation. You perform a nonstop boot if you do not want to stop to perform special operations---for example, to change system parameter values---before booting. Contrast with conversational boot.

object: In a network, a process to which a logical link connects. Some objects are DECnet programs---for example, the Mail object; other objects are user-written programs.

For two programs to communicate over the network, the source program on the local node establishes a logical link with the object on the remote node.

OPCOM messages: Messages broadcast by the Operator Communication Manager (OPCOM). These messages are displayed on operator terminals and written to the operator log file. The messages might be general messages that you send, user requests, operator replies, or system events.

OPCOM process: The system process that manages Operator Communication Manager (OPCOM) operations.

OpenVMS Cluster system: A loosely coupled configuration of two or more computers and storage subsystems. An OpenVMS Cluster system appears as a single system to the user, even though it shares some or all of the system resources. When a group of computers shares resources in an OpenVMS Cluster environment, the storage and computing resources of all the computers are combined, which can increase the processing power.

operator log file: The Operator Communication Manager (OPCOM) records messages in this file. The file is named SYS$MANAGER:OPERATOR.LOG.

operator terminals: Terminals designated to display messages broadcast by the Operator Communication Manager (OPCOM). Usually, the console terminal (with the device name OPA0:) is the operator terminal. However, you can designate any user terminal as an operator terminal.

output execution queue: A queue that accepts jobs for processing by a symbiont. The queue manager sends the symbiont a list of files, which the user defines when submitting the job. An output symbiont transfers data from a disk to an output device. As the symbiont processes each file, it produces output for the device it controls, such as a printer or a terminal.

owner UIC: Used with UIC-based protection, usually the UIC of the person who created a file or volume.

page: A unit used for allocating and deallocating memory.

On VAX systems, a page is 512 bytes.

On Alpha systems, a page can be 8 kilobytes (KB) (8192 bytes), 16KB, 32KB, or 64KB. The initial set of Alpha computers uses a page size of 8192 bytes. Compare with pagelet.

page file: In a paging operation, the file to which the system writes paged portions of memory. Your distribution kit includes a page file named SYS$SYSTEM:PAGEFILE.SYS. If necessary, SYS$SYSTEM:PAGEFILE.SYS can be used in place of the system crash dump file.

pagelet: On Alpha systems, a unit of memory in a 512-byte quantity. One Alpha pagelet is the same size as one VAX page. Also, on an Alpha 8KB computer, 16 Alpha pagelets equal 1 Alpha page.

page setup module: A device control module inserted at the beginning of each page of a print job.

paging: A memory management operation to efficiently use the physical memory allotted to a process by moving information between physical memory and files stored on disk. In paging, the system moves infrequently used portions of a process workspace out of physical memory to a file. Compare with swapping.

PAK: See Product Authorization Key (PAK).

partition: A logical subset of a read/write disk. A single disk can be subdivided into several partitions, each of which of which can be used independently. The partitions appear to be whole disks.

permanent database: In a network, a permanent copy of the DECnet configuration database. When you start the network, the permanent database provides the initial values for the volatile database. Changes remain after the network is shut down, but do not affect the current system.

permanently open image: A known image where directory information on the image file remains permanently resident in memory, eliminating the usual directory search required to locate a file.

physical dump: A crash dump containing the entire contents of physical memory to the system dump file. Compare with selective dump.

physical operation: In the Backup utility, an operation that copies, saves, restores, or compares an entire volume by logical blocks, ignoring any file structure.

physical sector: Division of a system or data area; smallest addressable unit on an ISO 9660 CD-ROM.

primary bootstrap image: Program that the boot block points to, which allows access to the system disk by finding the the secondary bootstrap image, SYSBOOT.EXE, and loading it into memory.

On VAX systems, the primary bootstrap image is VMB.EXE.

On Alpha systems, the primary bootstrap image is APB.EXE.

primary page and swap files: The default page file and swap file provided with your distribution kit. These files are named SYS$SYSTEM:PAGEFILE.SYS and SYS$SYSTEM:SWAPFILE.SYS. Contrast with secondary page and swap files.

primary processor: In a multiprocessing system, the processor that is either logically or physically attached to the console device and is the target of the console commands that bootstrap the multiprocessing system. The primary processor is responsible for starting other processors in the multiprocessing system. It also serves as the system timekeeper.

print forms: You can use print forms with output queues to determine certain page formatting attributes (such as margins and page length). In addition, the paper stock specified in a form determines whether a job is printed; if the stock of a job's form does not match the stock of the form mounted on the queue, the job is not printed.

Compaq supplies a default print form named DEFAULT. You can create additional forms if users need help formatting output, or if certain print jobs require special paper.

print job: An entry in an output queue that specifies a file or files to be printed on a printer. The user defines the file or files to be printed when submitting the job. When a printer is available, the queue manager sends the file to a symbiont for formatting and printing.

printer queue: A type of output execution queue that uses a symbiont to direct output to a printer. Compare with server queue and terminal queue.

priority: See base process priority or job scheduling priority.

private volume: A file-structured disk volume that contains only private files.

privileged image: A known image where increased privileges are temporarily assigned to any process running the image, permitting the process to exceed its user authorization file (UAF) privilege restrictions during execution of the image. In this way, users with normal privileges can run programs that require higher-than-normal privileges.

privileges: A means of restricting the functions users are authorized to perform on the system. System managers require privileges that are denied to most users.

process limits and quotas: User authorization file (UAF) parameters you can set for a user account to control the usage of system resources by processes in that account. (UAF parameters are different than system parameters.) You set values for process limits and quotas using the Authorize utility.

Product Authorization Key (PAK): Information, typically on a piece of paper, provided for many Compaq products. The data provided in the PAK allows you to register a software license in the license database on a system.

product configuration file (PCF): Optional POLYCENTER Software Installation utility file that might be supplied by the software manufacturer, or you can create it. A PCF contains responses to some or all of the installation questions for a product. It can provide default or required choices, which might differ from the default choices provided in the PDF.

product database (PDB): Database that is created automatically by the POLYCENTER Software Installation utility. When products are installed, the files and other objects that make up the product, such as directories and accounts, are recorded in the PDB. The configuration choices made during installation are also recorded.

product description file (PDF): File provided by the software manufacturer containing all the information the POLYCENTER Software Installation utility needs for installing either a software product or a set of software products.

product text file (PTF): POLYCENTER Software Installation utility file that is optionally supplied by the software manufacturer. It provides information about the product including product name, producer, configuration choice descriptions, and message text used during product installation.

protected image: A known image that is a shareable image and contains protected code. Protected code is code that runs in kernel mode or executive mode but that can be called by a user mode image.

protection code: Used with UIC-based protection, indicates who is allowed access and for what purposes.

public volume: A Files--11 volume that any user on the system can access and that can contain both private and public files.

queue: Allows users to submit requests for printing or batch processing. The system prints users' print jobs or processes users' batch jobs as resources allow.

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