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OpenVMS System Manager's Manual

Previous Contents Index Managing Resources

OpenVMS Management Station allows you to organize the systems you need to manage in ways that are meaningful to you and your environment, and allows you to manage user accounts on those systems.

You can easily manage user accounts across multiple OpenVMS systems, depending on your needs. The systems might be some of the clusters in a network, all of the systems on one floor of a building, a mix of clusters and nonclustered nodes, and so forth.

You can use OpenVMS Management Station to manage OpenVMS user accounts in a convenient, easy manner. For example, when creating an account on multiple systems, OpenVMS Management Station can add a user authorization file (UAF) entry, grant rights identifiers, create an OpenVMS directory, set a disk quota, set up OpenVMS Mail characteristics, and so forth, for each instance of the account.

OpenVMS Management Station manages the following OpenVMS resources:

  • The SYSUAF.DAT user authorization file
  • The RIGHTSLIST.DAT user rights file
  • The network proxy database
  • Account login-directory trees
  • User account disk quotas
  • The OpenVMS Mail VMSMAIL_PROFILE.DATA file Managing Operations

The OpenVMS Management Station supports the following account management operations:

  • Creating user accounts
  • Modifying user accounts (any aspect)
  • Deleting user accounts
  • Renaming user accounts
  • Displaying user account attributes

2.1.2 DCL Commands

You perform many system management tasks by entering DCL (DIGITAL Command Language) commands. For example, enter the DCL command MOUNT to make disks and tapes available to the system. Most of the DCL commands used by system managers require special privileges (such as OPER privilege).

The general format of a DCL command is as follows:

command-name[/qualifier[,...]] [parameter[,...]] [/qualifier[,...]]

Because a command can be continued on more than one line, the term command string is used to define the entire command. A command string is the complete specification of a command, including the command name, command qualifiers, parameters, and parameter qualifiers.

For complete descriptions of each DCL command, refer to online DCL help or the OpenVMS DCL Dictionary. If you are not familiar with DCL command syntax, refer to the OpenVMS User's Manual.

2.1.3 System Messages

When you enter commands in DCL or in utilities, the system returns messages to help you understand the result of each command. System messages can indicate the following information:

  • Successful completion of a command
  • Information about the effect of the command
  • Warning about the effect of the command
  • Failure to successfully complete the command

At times, you might need to interpret a system message, for example, to find out how to recover from a warning or failure. The Help Message utility allows you and system users to quickly access online descriptions of system messages from the DCL prompt.

For more information about the Help Message utility, refer to the OpenVMS System Messages: Companion Guide for Help Message Users. In addition, the OpenVMS System Messages and Recovery Procedures Reference Manual provides detailed descriptions of system messages.

2.1.4 DCL Command Procedures

You can use command procedures to efficiently perform routine tasks. A command procedure is a file containing DCL commands and, optionally, data used by those DCL commands. When you execute a command procedure, the system reads the file and executes the commands it contains. This eliminates the need for you to enter each command interactively. You can create command procedures to automate some of the routine system management tasks specific to your site.

A simple command procedure can contain a sequence of commands that you use frequently. For example, you could include the following commands in a command procedure called GO_WORK.COM:


When you execute this command procedure with the command @GO_WORK, you set your default directory to [PERRY.WORK] and display a list of files in that directory.

With complex command procedures, you can use DCL instead of a high-level programming language. For more information about creating command procedures, refer to the OpenVMS User's Manual. Executing Command Procedures in Batch Mode

You can execute command procedures in batch mode by submitting the procedure to a batch queue. When resources are available, the system creates a batch process to execute the commands in the procedure. Usually, processes running in batch mode execute at a lower process priority to avoid competing with interactive users for system resources.

You might execute a command procedure in batch mode for the following reasons:

  • To automate a task
  • To process work at a lower scheduling priority, so as not to compete with interactive users for system resources
  • To perform a task during off hours, such as at night or on weekends
  • To allow an operation to continue without having a terminal logged in, thereby increasing the security of the system

A batch-oriented command procedure can include a command to resubmit itself to a batch queue, thereby repetitively performing the task with no user intervention. For example, you might create a batch-oriented command procedure to run the Analyze/Disk_Structure utility (ANALYZE/DISK_STRUCTURE) to report disk errors. If you include a command to resubmit the procedure to a batch queue, the procedure will automatically execute when scheduled, unless errors cause the procedure to fail. The following example is a simple command procedure, named SYSTEM-DAILY.COM:

$! Resubmit this procedure to run again tomorrow.
$! Purge the log files
$! Analyze public disks
$! Print listings
$ EXIT Using Compaq-Supplied Command Procedures for System Management

Compaq provides several command procedures for managing a system. Table 2-1 lists some commonly used command procedures.

Table 2-1 System Management Command Procedures
Command Procedure Function
SYS$SYSTEM:STARTUP.COM The system uses this command procedure to automatically perform certain tasks that are required to start up an OpenVMS system. This procedure is executed when the system boots. Do not modify this command procedure.
SYS$STARTUP:SYSTARTUP_VMS.COM STARTUP.COM executes this procedure when the system boots. Add commands to this procedure to perform site-specific tasks each time the system boots.
SYS$SYSTEM:SHUTDOWN.COM Use to shut down the system in an orderly fashion.
SYS$UPDATE:AUTOGEN.COM Use to automatically set system parameters and page, swap, and dump file sizes to values appropriate for the system configuration and work load.
SYS$UPDATE:VMSINSTAL.COM Use to install software on a running system.

2.1.5 System Management Utilities

With the operating system, Compaq supplies a number of system management utilities to help perform system management tasks. A system management utility is a program that performs a set of related operations. For example, the Mount utility (MOUNT) makes disks and tapes available to the system, and the Backup utility (BACKUP) saves and restores files.

Most system management utilities require special privileges. Generally, you run these utilities from the SYSTEM account, which has all privileges by default. Section 2.2 describes logging in to the SYSTEM account.

You invoke some utilities using the following command format:

RUN SYS$SYSTEM:utility_name

To invoke other utilities, such as MOUNT and ANALYZE/DISK_STRUCTURE, enter a DCL command. For example:

Table 2-2 lists the system management utilities and their purposes. This manual describes how to use most of these utilities. For detailed information about utility commands and qualifiers, refer to the OpenVMS System Management Utilities Reference Manual.

Table 2-2 System Management Utilities and Tools
Utility Purpose
Accounting utility (ACCOUNTING) To produce reports of resource use.
ACL editor (access control list editor) To create and maintain ACLs.
Analyze/Disk_Structure utility (ANALYZE/DISK_STRUCTURE) To check the validity of Files--11 Structure Levels 1, 2, and 5 disk volumes, and to report errors and inconsistencies. Also used to repair these inconsistencies.
Audit Analysis utility (ANALYZE/AUDIT) To produce reports and summaries of security events from the system security audit log file. Use this utility to interpret the large amounts of auditing information that the system might generate.
Authorize utility (AUTHORIZE) To add and modify records in the existing user authorization and network authorization files, or to create new files. Also used to add and modify records in the rights database.
Backup utility (BACKUP) To copy or save files and disk volumes. Also used to restore saved files and volumes.
Bad Block Locator utility (BAD) To analyze block-addressable devices and record the location of blocks that cannot reliably store data.
+Crash Logg Utility Extractor (CLUE) On VAX systems, to obtain information about crash dumps.

++On Alpha systems, some commands in the System Dump Analyzer facility (SDA) contain CLUE functionality.

DECevent Event Management utility To produce ASCII reports derived from entries in system event log files.
Error Log utility (ERROR LOG) To report the contents of a system error log file.
Exchange utility (EXCHANGE) To transfer data to and from mass storage volumes that are written in formats other than standard formats recognized by the operating system.
Help Message utility (MSGHLP) To quickly access information about system messages returned by DCL commands.
Install utility (INSTALL) To improve performance or enhance privileges of images.
LAT Control Program utility (LATCP) To set up and control the LAT software on OpenVMS host systems. LAT software allows you to connect terminals and printers to multiple remote systems.
+Local Area Disk Control Program utility (LADCP) On VAX systems, to set up and control the local area disk (LAD) software on OpenVMS host systems. Use LAD software with InfoServer systems.
Log Manager Control Program utility (LMCP) To create and manage the transaction logs used by DECdtm services.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension utility (MIME) To read and compose MIME-encoded mail messages on OpenVMS system.
Monitor utility (MONITOR) To monitor systemwide performance.
Mount utility (MOUNT) To make a disk or magnetic tape volume available for processing.
Network Control Program (NCP) To set up, control, monitor, and test a DECnet network.
Network Control Language (NCL) To set up, control, monitor, and test a DECnet-Plus network.
Operator Communication Manager (OPCOM) tool To communicate with system users.
System Generation utility (SYSGEN) To create and install page, swap, and dump files and to manage system parameters.

+On VAX systems, to load and connect device drivers.

System Management utility (SYSMAN) To centralize system management. Allows you to perform system management tasks simultaneously on one or more nodes.

++On Alpha systems, to load and connect device drivers.

TCP/IP Services management control interfaces To configure and manage TCP/IP Services.

+VAX specific
++Alpha specific

This manual does not describe the following utilities in detail:

Utility For More Information
Bad Block Locator utility (BAD) OpenVMS Bad Block Locator Utility Manual,
Online help
Exchange utility (EXCHANGE) OpenVMS Exchange Utility Manual,
Online help
LASTCP and LADCP utilities InfoServer Client for OpenVMS LASTCP and LADCP Utilities Manual
Network Control Program utility (NCP) DECnet for OpenVMS Network Management Utilities,
Online help
Network Control Language utility (NCL) DECnet-Plus Network Control Language Reference
TCP/IP Services management control interfaces Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management

2.1.6 MGRMENU.COM Command Procedure

To help you perform basic system management tasks, Compaq provides a command procedure named SYS$EXAMPLES:MGRMENU.COM. This procedure displays a menu that you can use to perform the following tasks:

  • Add a user account
  • Build a standalone BACKUP kit
  • Shut down your system

You can use this command procedure as is, or modify it to serve your own site-specific needs. If you modify this procedure, Compaq recommends you first copy the procedure to another directory (for example, SYS$MANAGER), so that an original version of MGRMENU.COM is always available in the SYS$EXAMPLES directory.

To see and use the menu, enter the following command:


2.2 Logging In to the SYSTEM Account

To use system management utilities and perform system management functions, log in to the system manager's account (SYSTEM).


Compaq recommends that you change the password for the SYSTEM account frequently to maintain system security. Because the SYSTEM account has full privileges by default, exercise caution when using it.

If your site has strong security requirements, Compaq recommends that you disable all but batch use of the SYSTEM account and set up separate privileged accounts for individuals who must perform privileged activities on the system. This will allow you to more closely account for privileged activity on the system.

How to Perform This Task

  1. Press Return on the console terminal.
  2. At the Username prompt, enter SYSTEM.
  3. At the Password prompt, enter the password that you chose for the SYSTEM account when you installed or upgraded the operating system, or the current password if you changed it since then.
  4. The system displays a welcome message on the console terminal. If you have logged in previously, the system also prints the time of your last login. When the dollar sign ($) prompt appears, login is complete and you can enter commands.


On VAX systems:

Username: SYSTEM
        Welcome to OpenVMS VAX Version n.n on node x
    Last interactive login on Thursday, 20-FEB-2000 16:41
    Last non-interactive login on Friday, 21-FEB-20000 17:06

On Alpha systems:

Username: SYSTEM
        Welcome to OpenVMS Alpha (TM) Operating System, Version n.n on node x
    Last interactive login on Thursday, 20-FEB-2000 16:41
    Last non-interactive login on Friday, 21-FEB-2000 17:06

2.3 Using SYSMAN to Centralize System Management

If you manage more than one computer, you can use the System Management (SYSMAN) utility to centralize system management.

The following table lists some major SYSMAN features and points to sections in this chapter that contain more information.

Feature For More Information
Enable a system to execute SYSMAN commands from remote nodes Section 2.3.2
Define your SYSMAN management environment Section 2.3.4
Adjust your SYSMAN profile to set privileges, default device and directory, and DCL verification Section 2.3.6
Execute DCL commands from SYSMAN Section 2.3.8
Create SYSMAN command procedures Section 2.3.9
Set up SYSMAN with an initialization file Section 2.3.10

2.3.1 Understanding SYSMAN

SYSMAN centralizes system management, so that you, as system manager, can manage nodes or clusters from one location. Rather than logging in to individual nodes and repeating a set of management tasks, SYSMAN enables you to define your management environment to be a particular node, a group of nodes, or an OpenVMS Cluster environment. With a management environment defined, you can perform traditional system management tasks from your local node; SYSMAN executes these tasks on all nodes in the target environment. Privileges Required

You must have the following to run SYSMAN:

  • OPER and TMPMBX privileges
  • A separate account with no more than 125 rights, or enough identifiers removed from the current account so the total number of rights falls within the appropriate range.
    The rights limitation of 125 includes a minimum of three identifiers that are granted during login when the process rights list is created:
    • A UIC identifier
    • A system identifier
    • At least one environmental identifier, depending upon the environment in which the process is operating Usage Restriction

If you run SYSMAN from an account with more than 125 rights identifiers, and the environment is set to a remote node, the following error message is displayed:

SMI-E-RIGHTSLIM, Rights limit exceeded.

Note that this rights identifier limitation includes a minimum of three identifiers besides the rights identifiers that are associated with a user authorization record:

  • A UIC identifier
  • A system identifier
  • Depending upon the environment in which the process is operating, at least one environmental identifier

To run SYSMAN, you must have either of the following:

  • A separate account with no more than 125 rights identifiers
  • Enough identifiers removed from your current account so that the total number of rights falls within the appropriate range Tools and Commands

SYSMAN uses many of the same software tools that you traditionally use to manage a system. It can process most DCL commands, such as MOUNT and INITIALIZE. It can also execute many system management utilities and command procedures, such as AUTHORIZE and AUTOGEN.

SYSMAN also includes its own commands that let you perform the following tasks:

Command Task For More Information
ALF (automatic login facility) Associate a terminal or port with a user name Section 7.9.1
CONFIGURATION Inspect or modify OpenVMS Cluster parameters Section 22.4
DISKQUOTA Control and monitor disk usage Section 9.11.2
++IO Control and display the I/O configuration of an Alpha system Section 8.4.2
LICENSE Load and unload licenses Section 3.3.2
PARAMETERS Inspect and modify system parameters Section 15.7
STARTUP Customize startup databases by inspecting and modifying software startup components Section 5.4

++Alpha specific

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