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OpenVMS License Management Utility Manual

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1.7.2 Include, Exclude, and Reservation Lists

If you register a combinable license without an include or exclude list, any processor can load the license with access to the entire pool of combined license units, with the following results:

  • The entire pool of Availability License units becomes available to the processor that loads the license. LMF allocates the number of license units required for each processor as it loads the license. The appropriate LURT defines this number.
  • The entire pool of Activity License units can be available to any user (or activity) that loads the product. LMF allocates the license units as each user accesses the product.

By default, when combining Activity Licenses, LMF combines those without reservation lists into one license without a reservation list, and those with reservations lists into one license with a reservartion list that combines the separate reservation lists.

By default, when combining User Licenses, LMF combines those without reservation lists into one User License without a reservation list, and those with reservations lists into one User License with a reservation list that combines the separate reservation lists.

By default, when combining Personal Use Licenses, LMF combines any reservation lists associated with each license into one large reservation list that applies to all the combined licenses.

1.7.3 Termination Dates and Version Numbers

With the forced combination of multiple licenses, LMF sets the termination date, release date, and version number of the combined license to the earliest dates and version numbers that apply to the individual licenses being combined. The following table shows the combined license that results from the forced combination of two licenses:

  License 1 License 2 Combined License
Version Number 2.3 2.0 2.0
Release Date 1-JAN-1995 30-NOV-1996 1-JAN-1995
Termination Date 1-JAN-1999 30-SEP-1997 30-SEP-1997

Chapter 2
Using LMF

This chapter provides details about the tasks involved in managing software licenses. Topics covered include:

In addition, this chapter contains a clarification about using logical name LMF$DISPLAY_OPCOM_MESSAGE (see Section 2.7).

2.1 Preparing for License Registration

To license and use many software products on the OpenVMS operating system, follow at least these four steps:

  1. Obtain a PAK for your product.
    This is usually a hardcopy or electronic document containing information similar to that shown in Example 2-1. Order it from the software license issuer or software product producer.
  2. Register information from the PAK into the License Database.
    Use command procedure VMSLICENSE.COM to prompt for license registration information or enter the LICENSE REGISTER command directly. Example 2-3, produced with a LICENSE LIST command, shows a license registered in the License Database. In this manual the PAK information registered in the License Database is called a license.
  3. Ensure that the system loads the registered license.
    LMF requires that a registered license be loaded before you can use the product. When you register a license with VMSLICENSE.COM, you can confirm an option to load the license automatically. If you register a license with the LICENSE REGISTER command, you must also load it with a LICENSE LOAD command in order to use the product. At system startup, LMF automatically loads registered licenses.
  4. Install the product that corresponds to the license.
    Although the terms and conditions of license contracts vary, generally a license correlates with a particular release of a product. Because there are multiple factors that can affect the use of a license, such as the product release date, a version check, or a termination date, and because LMF allows products to check the License Database for properly registered licenses, you must match the license to the product.

After performing these steps, you can modify the license for a system or involve multiple systems in a licensing scheme (if your license agreement allows it).

For example, you want to restrict a license used in an OpenVMS Cluster environment to a specific node. If you register a license that uses the NO_SHARE option (an OpenVMS operating system license, for instance), assign the license to a specific node. Either enter a LICENSE MODIFY/INCLUDE=node-name command or respond to the prompt for a System Communications Services (SCS) node name in VMSLICENSE.COM (see Section 2.6.2 for details).

2.2 Managing the License Database

LMF stores all information about licenses in the License Database. By default, LICENSE commands refer to the default license database, and you usually do not need to know the name and location of the database. However, for system management reasons, you may need to move the database. This section describes techniques for accessing license information and moving the license database.

Most of the data fields in the License Database correspond to either the LICENSE qualifiers or to responses to command procedure prompts. For example, the authorization field contains the data entered with the following command:


If you enter USA1234 for the string, USA1234 becomes the data in that field.

When you first register a license, you create the first record with data matching your PAK. When you enter other LICENSE commands, LMF creates new records to include any changes you make. For example, when you enter a LICENSE MODIFY command, LMF creates a new record marked with the new information, including a notation that the license was modified.

For performance reasons, License Database information is duplicated in memory while your system is running. LICENSE commands impact the database stored on disk. To update the License Database information in memory, use the LICENSE LOAD or LICENSE UNLOAD commands.

2.2.1 Database Location

If you move the database to another directory or disk, or rename the database file, you must either define the logical name LMF$LICENSE at the system level to point to the new database, or you must use the /DATABASE=filespec qualifier with all LICENSE commands. Place permanent systemwide logical name definitions in the file SYS$COMMON:[SYSMGR]SYSLOGICALS.COM.

If you have multiple system disks in an OpenVMS Cluster environment where all the systems can access one of the system disks, put your common License Database on the readable disk. For any systems that boot from a separate system disk, you must redirect LMF to the License Database. Define the logical name LMF$LICENSE to be the disk where the database exists.

If you have multiple system disks in an OpenVMS Cluster environment where some systems cannot access one of the system disks, you must keep separate identical License Databases. Whenever one database is modified, you must copy it to update the other databases.

Compaq recommends you back up the License Databases after every modification.

2.2.2 History Records

Your system maintains history records. Each history record contains an exact copy of the license record before modification, the LICENSE command used to modify the record, the issuing username, and the date and time of modification.

History records accumulate over time and provide a comprehensive audit trail of all modifications you make to the License Database. Most software issuers, including Compaq, require that you retain this information to demonstrate that you are complying with license terms and conditions.

To display history information, enter the following command:


To create a hard copy, enter the following command:


Over time, LICENSE commands, including the LICENSE START command issued automatically during system startup, might take longer than usual to execute. This could be due to an accumulation of license history records in the License Database.

If you notice delays, Compaq recommends that you purge the history records in your active License Databases, but only after first preserving this information in one or more backup locations. Use the DCL command COPY or the Backup utility to make a copy of the License Database, thereby preserving the current version of the License Database, including history records.

To purge history records, enter the following command:



Ensure that you do not omit the /STATUS=EXTINCT qualifier in the above command. If you do, all license records are deleted, leaving your License Database empty.

LICENSE DELETE deletes all history records, making them invisible to subsequent LICENSE commands.

Creating a new, compressed version of the License Database reclaims the disk space formerly occupied by the now deleted history records. To create a compressed License Database, use the DCL Convert utility (CONVERT).

2.3 Getting a Product Authorization Key (PAK)

Generally, you obtain both a PAK and the product from a representative of a company that distributes software. You order a PAK just as you order another product from Compaq or another company. Compaq provides PAKs on paper certificates, traditional media, compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), or by telephone or network so that you can register product data in the License Database. LMF needs specific values from a PAK to identify the source of the PAK and the source of a product.

A PAK comes from a PAK issuer---the LMF name for the entity that supplies the PAK. Currently, most licenses specify DEC for the PAK issuer, and currently DEC is the default character string when you register a PAK with VMSLICENSE.COM. A PAK issuer string can also be DEC-USA or DEC-EUROPE to differentiate regions or departments within Compaq. Other software vendors provide their own PAK issuer strings with their licenses. LMF uses the string to differentiate between different sources of licenses.

Compaq may distribute and issue a PAK for a product that it does not produce. Thus, LMF also uses a string that identifies a software producer. A producer is the company that supplies the software product. Generally, a producer and a PAK issuer are the same. The current default producer name when you register a PAK with VMSLICENSE.COM is DEC.

The OpenVMS operating system and LMF use PAKs to authorize most products for use. For example, after you install OpenVMS, you may have all the software required to use the System Integrated Products (SIPs) such as networking, RMS Journaling, and Volume Shadowing. To enable a SIP, register its PAK and load the license (there is no separate installation media). Even when you receive multiple software products on one Compaq CD-ROM, register a PAK for each product to enable the software.

Some products follow the older product distribution and license approach, providing installation kits that include distribution media and documentation. If a kit does not include the PAK, order it separately.

Figure 2-1 illustrates the PAK transfer process.

Figure 2-1 PAK Transfer Methods

2.4 Registering Licenses

To run most Compaq software products, including the OpenVMS operating system, you must first register the product license in the License Database and then load the registered license. In addition, many third-party vendors of OpenVMS layered software also require you to use LMF to complete the same licensing tasks for their products.

Section 2.1 describes the registration options and presents examples of registration. Figure 2-2 illustrates the routes from a PAK to the License Database.

Figure 2-2 From a PAK to the License Database

2.4.1 When To Perform Registration

Most Compaq software that runs on OpenVMS systems and many third-party software layered products use LMF. To check a product's licensing requirements, see its installation manual or release notes. These documents explain which products use LMF registration.

If a product uses LMF, you must obtain a PAK, which includes the appropriate data for you to enter. A PAK typically contains the information shown in Example 2-1.

Example 2-1 Typical PAK Information

                         ISSUER: DEC
                       PRODUCER: DEC
                NUMBER OF UNITS: 460
                        VERSION: 7.3
           KEY TERMINATION DATE: 31-DEC-2001
                    KEY OPTIONS: MOD_UNITS
                  PRODUCT TOKEN:
                  HARDWARE I.D.:
                       CHECKSUM: 1-BGON-IAMA-GNOL-AIKO

2.4.2 Registration and Installation

Follow the licensing and installation procedure provided with each product. You can save time if you consider the following variations and consequences for product installation and license registration:

  • If you register a license before you install a product, the product installation can be somewhat faster. You should register the license first, even though some products may allow installation first.
  • If you start to install a product and realize you need to register a license for it first, you can register the product from another session while the installation session waits at the "Is there a license PAK registered for this product?" After you register and load the license, you can use the product. Be sure to reply correctly to any licensing questions during the product installation. Check your product installation guide for specific restrictions.
  • To add a new node to an OpenVMS Cluster, you can register the new OpenVMS license before you add the node. You do not usually have to install the product again, unless the new node uses a new system disk.
  • If you are upgrading an OpenVMS Cluster environment, you may want to register all the OpenVMS licenses at one time after one node is operating. This eliminates some messages when the other nodes start up and keeps your nodes more available for interactive use. Typically, you assign licenses by processor type. For example, you should not assign a license intended for an Alphaserver 8400 system to a VAX 6000 system.

Figure 2-3 illustrates the license registration and product installation route both for processors running the OpenVMS operating system and for layered products.

Figure 2-3 The PAK and Software Routes to a License

2.4.3 Registration Methods

Before you install a product,1 register licenses in the License Database by entering PAK information in one of the following ways:

  • In response to prompts from SYS$UPDATE:VMSLICENSE.COM. This command procedure provides some default data and a menu-driven interface to help register the license.
  • With a LICENSE REGISTER command. The qualifier descriptions for the LICENSE REGISTER command describe the meaning of the PAK information. Each piece of PAK data correlates to a LICENSE REGISTER command qualifier.

Some products register their licenses during their own installation procedure. Unless you have a special circumstance, choose the registration method you prefer or the one recommended by your installation guide.

After a license is registered, it must be loaded to make it known on the current system. Section 2.1 describes the primary methods for registering and loading your licenses.


The following steps show how to use the VMSLICENSE.COM procedure to register a license for a product called CRYPTICALMENT. The PAK information is shown in Example 2-1.

  1. Log in to the system manager's account, SYSTEM.
  2. Enter the following command and press Return:


    The procedure displays the following menu:

        VMS License Management Utility Options:
            1. REGISTER a Product Authorization Key
            2. AMEND an existing Product Authorization Key
            3. CANCEL an existing Product Authorization Key
            4. LIST the Product Authorization Keys
            5. MODIFY an existing Product Authorization Key
            6. DISABLE an existing Product Authorization Key
            7. DELETE an existing Product Authorization Key
            8. COPY an existing Product Authorization Key
            9. MOVE an existing Product Authorization Key
           10. ENABLE an existing Product Authorization Key
           11. SHOW the licenses loaded on this node
           12. SHOW the unit requirements for this node
           99. EXIT this procedure
        Type '?' at any prompt for a description of the information
        requested.  Press Ctrl/Z at any prompt to return to this menu.
    Enter one of the above choices [1]
  3. Enter 1. The procedure displays the following message:

    * Do you have your Product Authorization Key? [YES]:

  4. Enter Y. The procedure displays the following information and prompts:

       Use the REGISTER option to add a new license to a license
       database.  A Product Authorization Key (PAK) provides the product
       name and information you need to register the license.  You must
       enter all the information provided by your PAK exactly as it

                           Issuer [DEC]:
                 Authorization Number []:
  5. Press Return to specify DEC1 as the issuer.
    Enter USA126087 for the authorization number that appears on the PAK. The procedure prompts for the product name:

                     Product Name []:
  6. Enter CRYPTICALMENT for the product name string that appears on the PAK. The procedure prompts for the producer:

                     Producer [DEC]:

  7. Press Return to specify DEC as the producer. The procedure prompts for the number of units:

                  Number of Units []:
  8. Enter 460 for the number of units. The procedure prompts for the version:

                          Version []:
  9. Enter 7.3 for the version number from the PAK. The procedure prompts for the key termination date:

             Key Termination Date []:
  10. Enter 31-DEC-2001 for the key termination date. The procedure prompts for the following information:

          Availability Table Code []:
              Activity Table Code []:
  11. Enter E for the Availability Table Code. Press Return after the Activity Table Code prompt. The procedure prompts for the following information:

                      Key Options []:
                    Product Token []:
                      Hardware-Id []:
  12. Enter MOD_UNITS for the option after the Key Options prompt. Press Return after the Product Token Prompt and the Hardware-ID prompt. The procedure prompts for the checksum:

                         Checksum []:
  13. Enter 1-BGON-IAMA-GNOL-AIKO for the checksum.


    The checksum string always begins with a number. The other 16 characters are always alphabetic characters from A through P.

    The procedure displays the information you entered. For example:

    Here is a list of the license information just entered:
                         Issuer:  DEC
                  Authorization:  USA126087
                       Producer:  DEC
                   Product Name:  CRYPTICALMENT
                          Units:  460
                   Release Date:
                        Version:  7.3
               Termination Date:  31-DEC-2001
                   Availability:  E
                        Options:  MOD_UNITS
                    Hardware ID:
                       Checksum:  1-BGON-IAMA-GNOL-AIKO
    Is that correct? [YES]:
  14. Compare the information on the screen with the information on the PAK. If the information is correct, enter Y.


    If you enter PAK information incorrectly, you receive an error message, and the license is not registered. A checksum error can result when you enter incorrect information for the other items on the PAK. If you get an error, carefully check all the data that you entered.

    If the information is incorrect, enter N.
    When the procedure displays the following question, enter Y:

    Do you wish to make corrections? [YES]:
  15. To make corrections, the procedure asks all of the questions again but supplies the data just entered as defaults for each data field.
    • If the procedure displays correct information, press Return.
    • If the procedure displays incorrect information, enter the new data.
    • If the procedure displays incorrect information that you wish to cancel without entering new data, enter the backslash (\) character.

    If you entered all the information correctly, the procedure displays the following message:


    If you entered some information incorrectly but did not choose YES to make corrections, the procedure may display the following message:

    %LICENSE-F-BADCHK, checksum does not validate for CRYPTICALMENT
    Please review all entered PAK data, including the checksum.
    Do you wish to make corrections? [YES]:
    To correct the data, enter Y.
    If you enter an incorrect checksum string, the procedure responds as follows:

     1-BGON-IAMA-GNOL-AIKO is not a valid license checksum string.
     Press RETURN for more information
        The license checksum is a 17-character verification string created by
        the PAK issuer for each PAK.  The checksum string is presented in
        the format n-cccc-cccc-cccc-cccc, where n is an integer and c is a
        character from A through P.  A PAK presents the checksum string with
        hyphen (-) characters for readability.  Because the LMF does not count
        them for authorization, you can leave them out.  Otherwise, you must
        enter the checksum string exactly as specified on your PAK.
        If a default value is displayed and you wish to use it just press
        the RETURN key.   To cancel the use of default data without
        entering new data, enter the backslash (\) character. The
        license checksum is a required field for the REGISTER and AMEND
                          Checksum []:

    Enter the correct checksum at the prompt.
  16. After the license is successfully registered, the procedure asks if you want to load the license on the current node, as follows:

    Do you want to LOAD this license on this system? [YES]:

    If you registered the PAK on a standalone system and you want to make the software available (active) immediately, enter Y. If you registered the license in an OpenVMS Cluster environment but do not want to make it available (active) on the current node, enter N. After you exit this procedure, you can enter the LICENSE LOAD command to load the license on the desired node.
    If you enter Y and the license is successfully loaded, the procedure displays the following informational message and prompt:


    1 With the OpenVMS operating system, you start the installation first. Although Compaq does not recommend it, you can install some software products first and license them later. See your software product's documentation for details.
    1 Although the License Management Facility software is now produced by Compaq Computer Corporation, DEC is still listed as the issuer of the license while registering.

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