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HP TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS
User's Guide

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Unbinds a network device (BGx:) from a TELNET terminal device (TNAx:) that was previously bound with a BIND_SESSION command or qualifier.

DCL Format

UNBIND_SESSION network_device terminal_device




Network device (BGx:) to unbind.



Associated terminal device (TNAx:).


TNA458:  BG2032:  Temporary condor:4009          angel:23
TNA460:  BG4739:  Temporary condor:23            ler13.dec.com:1037
TNA463:           Temporary

This example displays the devices and unbinds one of them.

Chapter 5
Sending and Receiving Mail Using SMTP

For exchanging electronic mail (e-mail) with users working on internet hosts, the TCP/IP Services product includes Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Post Office Protocol (POP) software, and Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP).

The following table lists the SMTP electronic mail services you can perform and the sections that explain how to use them.

Capability Section
Send mail to users on other internet hosts. 5.2
Specify an SMTP outbound alias. 5.3
Send mail to multiple users, with and without distribution lists. 5.4
Read mail. 5.5
Set a "personal" name. 5.6
Create a carbon copy of your messages. 5.7
Forward messages to other users. 5.8
Forward files to other users. 5.9
Use the UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program (UUCP) to send mail. 5.10
Get status information about SMTP mail. 5.11.1
Remove holding-state mail messages from SMTP queues. 5.11.2
Requeue holding-state mail messages for delivery. 5.11.3
Use your PC mail software to receive and send messages. 5.12

To use TCP/IP mail services, you need the following:

  • Knowledge of the OpenVMS Mail utility
  • User names and host names or IP addresses of the people to whom you want to send mail

5.1 Obtaining Online Help

You can obtain online help for TCP/IP Services electronic mail by entering the following command:


5.2 Sending Mail

To send mail to another internet host also running SMTP, simply invoke the OpenVMS Mail utility at the DCL prompt, type SEND at the MAIL> prompt, and enter the destination. A remote destination consists of the destination user name followed by an at sign (@) and the destination host (such as user_name@host). If the user is on your local host, omit the at sign and host name.

Specify the destination host as either a host name or an IP address. The following example sends mail to user MALCOLM at host PHILOS.BU.EDU:

To: malcolm@philos.bu.edu
Subj:   Final Exams

The following example sends mail to user MALCOLM at a host with IP address Note that the IP address can be enclosed within brackets.

To:   malcolm@
Subj:   Final Exams

The OpenVMS Mail utility automatically detects destination addresses that include fully qualified host names (one in which the node component includes a period [.], such as MALCOLM@PHILOS.BU.EDU) and sends the mail using the SMTP protocol, unless your system has been set up to use a different Internet protocol (by defining an alternate protocol with the MAIL$INTERNET_TRANSPORT logical name).

However, if you use a destination address that is not fully qualified --- that is, one in which the node component does not include a period (.) --- the Mail utility by default assumes the address is a DECnet address. For example, if you specified MALCOLM@PHILOS as the destination address, the Mail utility converts it to DECnet format (PHILOS::MALCOLM).

You can force the OpenVMS Mail utility to use a specific protocol by defining the MAIL$INTERNET_MODE logical name. This is useful in cases where a mail address, such as MALCOLM@PHILOS, can be valid for either SMTP or DECnet.

You can assign one of the following values to the MAIL$INTERNET_MODE logical name:

  • SMTP
    OpenVMS Mail always interprets the node component of an unqualified address as an Internet address specification. (SMTP is the default mode unless you define an alternate Internet transport with the MAIL$INTERNET_TRANSPORT logical name.)
    OpenVMS Mail always interprets the node component of an unqualified address as a DECnet node specification.
  • HYBRID (the default)
    OpenVMS Mail uses an Internet protocol if the node component of the address contains a period. If no periods are in the node component, Mail uses the DECnet protocol.

Define the logical name in your LOGIN.COM file. For example, the following definition causes the Mail utility to interpret any address that does not include a period in the node component of the specification as an Internet address:


Another way to force the OpenVMS Mail utility to use SMTP is to include the SMTP% prefix immediately before the destination or IP address. Enclose the destination in quotation marks, as in the following example:

To:   SMTP%"malcolm@philos"

To prevent the OpenVMS Mail utility from automatically converting an unqualified Internet host name address to a DECnet format, you can do one of the following:

  • Fully qualify the host name (for example, specify the destination address as MALCOLM@PHILOS.BU.EDU instead of MALCOLM@PHILOS).
  • Define the MAIL$INTERNET_MODE logical name as SMTP.
  • Include the SMTP% prefix before the destination address.

For more information about the OpenVMS Mail utility and how it interprets addresses, see the appropriate OpenVMS documentation.

5.3 Specifying the SMTP Outbound Alias

SMTP allows you to specify an outbound alias that is applied to mail as it is sent and also specifies the network address to which a reply is sent.

5.3.1 Defining the Outbound Alias

To specify an outbound alias, define the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical to the text you want your From : header to be.

For example, you might define the logical as follows:

$ DEFINE TCPIP$SMTP_FROM "bill.smith@xxx.com"

This command sets the outbound alias to the following:

From: bill.smith@xxx.com

Define the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical before invoking OpenVMS Mail.

If you always want the header to be sent with the outbound alias, define the logical in your login command procedure (LOGIN.COM).

The outbound alias must be a valid address to which recipients can reply. If it is not valid, recipients cannot reply to you, and bounced mail messages are not returned to you.

If you do not define the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical, the From : address on your mail messages is the same one that you have always had.

Use only simple 7-bit ASCII characters in the value you assign to the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical. Do not use control characters.

The address you use to define TCPIP$SMTP_FROM must be an RFC 822 legal SMTP address; that is, user@domain. If the address is not interpreted correctly, the SMTP mailer ignores it and uses the From : address that it has constructed for you.

5.3.2 Appending the Personal Name String to the Outbound Alias

If you have defined an OpenVMS Mail personal name, the SMTP mailer appends that string to the outbound alias.

For example, a personal name might look like the following:

Bill L. Smith Phone: 123-456-8000

The TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical is defined as follows:

$ DEFINE TCPIP$SMTP_FROM "bill.smith@xxx.com"

The following example shows the resulting From : header:

From: bill.smith@xxx.com (Bill L. Smith Phone: 123-456-8000)

The personal name is appended to the From : address only if both of the following conditions are met:

  • The value you give for the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical does not contain parenthetical phrases (text within parentheses).
  • The From : address contains the SMTP domain string (the @domain portion of the address).

To use a different personal name than the one defined in your OpenVMS Mail personal name, define the personal name string as part of the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical in a parenthetical phrase after the user@domain address. Separate the address from the parenthetical phrase with a space. Do not use double quotation marks (" ") in the personal name.

For example, you can define the outbound alias logical as follows:

_$ "bill.smith@xxx.com (Phone: 123-456-8000 FAX: 123-456-9000)"

Note the following restrictions:

  • The SMTP mailer does not allow you to define the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical using the following syntax:

    "personal-name" <user@host>
  • Do not specify the logical as follows:

    $ DEFINE TCPIP$SMTP_FROM """personal-name"" <bill.smith@xxx.com>"

    Instead, define the logical as follows:

    $ DEFINE TCPIP$SMTP_FROM "bill.smith@xxx.com (personal-name)"

5.3.3 Appending a Substitute Domain String

If you define TCPIP$SMTP_FROM without an SMTP domain string (the @domain portion of the address), SMTP appends the substitute domain name to the text you define. If you do not define a substitute domain name, the host name is used.

For example, the host is configured with a substitute domain name of x.com , and the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical is defined as follows:


In this case, the resulting address is as follows:

From: bill.smith@x.com

However, if the host is not configured with a substitute domain and the host name is host.x.com , SMTP_FROM is defined as follows:


In this case, the resulting address is as follows:

From: bill.smith@host.x.com

5.3.4 Disabling Modifications to TCPIP$SMTP_FROM

To disable the modifications that TCPIP SMTP makes to the value you assign to TCPIP$SMTP_FROM (such as appending the OpenVMS personal name and @domain to a value with no @domain), include the string [VERBATIM].

For example:

$ DEFINE TCPIP$SMTP_FROM "[VERBATIM] bill.smith@xxx.com"

The resulting address is as follows:

From: bill.smith@xxx.com

5.3.5 TCPIP$SMTP_FROM and the Return-Path: Header

The address you define is used for the Return-Path : mail header. The Return-Path : header is used to bounce undeliverable mail. Note that the version of the text used for the Return-Path : header is stripped of comments (such as the personal name string) and always has a domain string. For more information about the domain name that is supplied, see Section 5.3.3.

5.3.6 X-VMS-True-From: Header

When the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical is used to set the From: header, the text that would normally have been used for the From: header is added to the headers as an X-VMS-True-From : header.

5.3.7 Managing Outbound Alias Processing

To disable outbound alias processing and use of the TCPIP$SMTP_FROM logical, define the following system logical:


5.4 Sending Mail to Multiple Users

To send mail to more than one user at a time, use the SEND command as discussed in Section 5.2, and type one of the following at the To: prompt:

5.4.1 Entering a List of Names

When you type a list of names, use the following guidelines:

  • Separate the names with a comma ( , ).
  • If multiple users are on the same remote host, type the full user_name@host combination for each user.
  • If a user is on your local host, omit the at sign (@) and host name.

For example:

To: user1,user2,user3@host3,user4@host4

In the preceding example, user1 and user2 are located on the local OpenVMS system; user3 is located on host3; and user4 is located on host4.

To: user1@host5,user2@host5

In the preceding example, both user1 and user2 are located on remote host host5.

The following example sends the same mail to the following users:



5.4.2 Distribution Lists

To send mail to multiple users by entering the name of a distribution list, follow these guidelines:

  • The file with the distribution list can be yours or belong to someone else.
  • The file can reside locally or remotely.
  • Do not include the names of other distribution lists in the distribution list.

You can use two kinds of distribution lists:

  • OpenVMS distribution list
    • Create a .DIS file in your own directory or use an existing one.
    • You can include comment lines (lines preceded by an exclamation mark [!]) in the .DIS list file.
    • You can include both OpenVMS addresses and SMTP addresses. If you want the OpenVMS Mail utility to use SMTP for all SMTP addresses, qualified and unqualified, either set the MAIL$INTERNET_MODE logical name to SMTP, specify fully qualified SMTP addresses only, or use the SMTP% prefix with the destination enclosed in quotation marks.
    • To send mail to the people on your distribution list, enter the following command:

      MAIL>  SEND
      To:  @list_name
  • SMTP distribution list
    • Use an existing .DIS file or create a .DIS file in SYS$SPECIFIC:[TCPIP$SMTP] or, if defined on your system, TCPIP$SMTP_COMMON:.
    • Give the list a unique name that is not the same as a local user name.
    • To specify comment lines, use an exclamation mark (!) in the first column.
    • Include only SMTP addresses.
    • Use one address per line.
    • To send mail to the people on this distribution list, enter the following command:

      MAIL>  SEND
      To:  list_name@host_where_list_resides

      If the MAIL$INTERNET_MODE logical name is not set to SMTP, either specify a fully qualified host name or use the SMTP% prefix.

The following examples show different methods of using distribution lists.

  1. This example sends mail to users whose names are on the local OpenVMS distribution list AGENCIES.DIS. The distribution list file is displayed in this example. The MAIL$INTERNET_MODE logical name is not set, so by default unqualified Internet addresses would be sent over DECnet; therefore, the AUDUBON@NY address is included with the SMTP% prefix and quotation marks.

    ! This is an OpenVMS distribution file named AGENCIES.DIS.
    $ MAIL
  2. This example sends mail to users whose names are on the local SMTP distribution list SYS$SPECIFIC:[TCPIP$SMTP]NATL_INTEREST.DIS. The distribution list file is displayed in this example.

    $ MAIL
    To:  natl_interest@main_office.org
    Subj:  News Items
  3. This example sends mail to the users on SMTP distribution list FINANCE_CENTERS.DIS, which is maintained on remote mail server host HOLBROOK.

    $  MAIL
    To:  finance_centers@holbrook
    Subj: Portfolio Activity

5.5 Reading Mail

To read received mail, follow these steps:

  1. At the DCL prompt, type MAIL.
  2. At the MAIL> prompt, enter the DIRECTORY command to view a list of received messages.
  3. Enter the READ command or indicate the message number you want to view in exactly the same way as you would for OpenVMS mail.

In the following example, a user views the directory of unread new mail and selects message 3 to read.


You have 3 new messages.


# From                 Date         Subject

1 GWAY::SMTP%"helenm@bhc 10-MAR-2001  Just Checking In
2 GWAY::SMTP%"mays@sfg 11-MAR-2001  Common Bases
3 CBIRD::SMTP%"seaway 12-MAR-2001  Cruises


5.6 OpenVMS Mail Personal Name String

You can define a personal name string that is included at the top of the mail messages you send. To create a personal name with SMTP mail, use the SET PERSONAL_NAME command. Note the following restrictions:

  • Enclose the string in double quotation marks.
  • Do not use additional double quotation marks within the string.
  • You can use single quotation marks ( ' ' ) within the personal name.
  • Do not use 8-bit ASCII characters (for example, ä or ö). The eighth bit is truncated. For example, ä becomes d and ö becomes v.

The following commmand sets a personal name that includes quotation marks:

MAIL> SET PERSONAL_NAME "'Wealth' is in the mind"

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