HP OpenVMS Systems Documentation
OpenVMS Cluster Systems
Order Number: AA--PV5WF--TK
This manual describes procedures and guidelines for configuring and managing OpenVMS Cluster systems. Except where noted, the procedures and guidelines apply equally to VAX and Alpha computers. This manual also includes information for providing high availability, building-block growth, and unified system management across coupled systems.
Revision/Update Information: This manual supersedes OpenVMS Cluster Systems, OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.3 and OpenVMS VAX Version 7.3.
Software Version: OpenVMS Alpha Version 7.3--1 OpenVMS VAX Version 7.3
© 2002 Compaq Information Technologies Group, L.P.
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OpenVMS Cluster Systems describes system management for OpenVMS Cluster systems. Although the OpenVMS Cluster software for VAX and Alpha computers is separately purchased, licensed, and installed, the difference between the two architectures lies mainly in the hardware used. Essentially, system management for VAX and Alpha computers in an OpenVMS Cluster is identical. Exceptions are pointed out.
Who Should Use This Manual
This document is intended for anyone responsible for setting up and managing OpenVMS Cluster systems. To use the document as a guide to cluster management, you must have a thorough understanding of system management concepts and procedures, as described in the OpenVMS System Manager's Manual.
How This Manual Is Organized
OpenVMS Cluster Systems contains ten chapters and seven appendixes.
Chapter 1 introduces OpenVMS Cluster systems.
Chapter 2 presents the software concepts integral to maintaining OpenVMS Cluster membership and integrity.
Chapter 3 describes various OpenVMS Cluster configurations and the ways they are interconnected.
Chapter 4 explains how to set up an OpenVMS Cluster system and coordinate system files.
Chapter 5 explains how to set up an environment in which resources can be shared across nodes in the OpenVMS Cluster system.
Chapter 6 discusses disk and tape management concepts and procedures and how to use Volume Shadowing for OpenVMS to prevent data unavailability.
Chapter 7 discusses queue management concepts and procedures.
Chapter 8 explains how to build an OpenVMS Cluster system once the necessary preparations are made, and how to reconfigure and maintain the cluster.
Chapter 9 provides guidelines for configuring and building large OpenVMS Cluster systems, booting satellite nodes, and cross-architecture booting.
Chapter 10 describes ongoing OpenVMS Cluster system maintenance.
Appendix A lists and defines OpenVMS Cluster system parameters.
Appendix B provides guidelines for building a cluster common user authorization file.
Appendix C provides troubleshooting information.
Appendix D presents three sample programs for LAN control and explains how to use the Local Area OpenVMS Cluster Network Failure Analysis Program.
Appendix E describes the subroutine package used with local area OpenVMS Cluster sample programs.
Appendix F provides techniques for troubleshooting network problems related to the NISCA transport protocol.
Appendix G describes how the interactions of workload distribution and network topology affect OpenVMS Cluster system performance, and discusses transmit channel selection by PEDRIVER.
This document is not a one-volume reference manual. The utilities and commands are described in detail in the OpenVMS System Manager's Manual, the OpenVMS System Management Utilities Reference Manual, and the OpenVMS DCL Dictionary.
For additional information on the topics covered in this manual, refer to the following documents:
For additional information about Compaq OpenVMS products and services, access the Compaq website at the following location:
Compaq welcomes your comments on this manual. Please send comments to either of the following addresses:
How To Order Additional Documentation
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The following conventions are used in this manual:
OpenVMS Cluster systems are an ideal environment for developing
high-availability applications, such as transaction processing systems,
servers for network client/server applications, and data-sharing
Computers in an OpenVMS Cluster system interact to form a cooperative, distributed operating system and derive a number of benefits, as shown in the following table.
|Resource sharing||OpenVMS Cluster software automatically synchronizes and load balances batch and print queues, storage devices, and other resources among all cluster members.|
|Flexibility||Application programmers do not have to change their application code, and users do not have to know anything about the OpenVMS Cluster environment to take advantage of common resources.|
|High availability||System designers can configure redundant hardware components to create highly available systems that eliminate or withstand single points of failure.|
|Nonstop processing||The OpenVMS operating system, which runs on each node in an OpenVMS Cluster, facilitates dynamic adjustments to changes in the configuration.|
|Scalability||Organizations can dynamically expand computing and storage resources as business needs grow or change without shutting down the system or applications running on the system.|
|Performance||An OpenVMS Cluster system can provide high performance.|
|Management||Rather than repeating the same system management operation on multiple OpenVMS systems, management tasks can be performed concurrently for one or more nodes.|
|Security||Computers in an OpenVMS Cluster share a single security database that can be accessed by all nodes in a cluster.|
|Load balancing||Distributes work across cluster members based on the current load of each member.|
OpenVMS Cluster system configurations consist of hardware components from the following general groups:
References: Detailed OpenVMS Cluster configuration
guidelines can be found in the OpenVMS Cluster Software Software
Product Description (SPD) and in Guidelines for OpenVMS Cluster Configurations.
Up to 96 computers, ranging from desktop to mainframe systems, can be members of an OpenVMS Cluster system. Active members that run the OpenVMS Alpha or OpenVMS VAX operating system and participate fully in OpenVMS Cluster negotiations can include:
An interconnect is a physical path that connects computers to other computers and to storage subsystems. OpenVMS Cluster systems support a variety of interconnects (also referred to as buses) so that members can communicate using the most appropriate and effective method possible:
In addition to the physical interconnects listed in Section 1.2.2, another type of interconnect, a shared memory CI (SMCI) for OpenVMS Galaxy instances, is available. SMCI supports cluster communications between Galaxy instances.
For more information about SMCI and Galaxy configurations, see the
OpenVMS Alpha Partitioning and Galaxy Guide.
1.2.4 Storage Devices
A shared storage device is a disk or tape that is accessed by multiple computers in the cluster. Nodes access remote disks and tapes by means of the MSCP and TMSCP server software (described in Section 1.3.1).
Systems within an OpenVMS Cluster support a wide range of storage devices:
The OpenVMS operating system, which runs on each node in the OpenVMS Cluster, includes several software components that facilitate resource sharing and dynamic adjustments to changes in the underlying hardware configuration.
If one computer becomes unavailable, the OpenVMS Cluster system
continues operating because OpenVMS is still running on the remaining
1.3.1 OpenVMS Cluster Software Functions
|Connection manager||Member integrity||Coordinates participation of computers in the cluster and maintains cluster integrity when computers join or leave the cluster.|
|Distributed lock manager||Resource synchronization||Synchronizes operations of the distributed file system, job controller, device allocation, and other cluster facilities. If an OpenVMS Cluster computer shuts down, all locks that it holds are released so processing can continue on the remaining computers.|
|Distributed file system||Resource sharing||Allows all computers to share access to mass storage and file records, regardless of the type of storage device (DSA, RF, SCSI, and solid state subsystem) or its location.|
|Distributed job controller||Queuing||Makes generic and execution queues available across the cluster.|
|MSCP server||Disk serving||Implements the proprietary mass storage control protocol in order to make disks available to all nodes that do not have direct access to those disks.|
|TMSCP server||Tape serving||Implements the proprietary tape mass storage control protocol in order to make tape drives available to all nodes that do not have direct access to those tape drives.|